UK arrested Tommy Robinson for reporting child-rape gangs that the government caters to. The UK banned reporting of his arrest, denied him a lawyer, and is trying to have him assassinated in prison. Regardless of how you feel about his views, this is a totalitarian government.
Tommy Robinson isn't the first to that the UK has jailed after a secret trial. Melanie Shaw tried to expose child abuse in a Nottinghamshire kids home -- it wasn't foreigners doing the molesting, but many members of the UK's parliament. The government kidnapped her child and permanently took it away. Police from 3 forces have treated her like a terrorist and themselves broken the law. Police even constantly come by to rob her phone and money. She was tried in a case so secret the court staff had no knowledge of it. Her lawyer, like Tommy's, wasn't present. She has been held for over 2 years in Peterborough Prison. read, read
|Republic of Colombia|
República de Colombia (Spanish)
Motto: "Libertad y Orden" (Spanish)
"Freedom and Order"
Anthem: ¡Oh, Gloria Inmarcesible! (Spanish)
O unfading glory!
Location of Colombia (dark green)
in South America (grey)
and largest city
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|Recognized regional languages||68 ethnic languages and dialects. English is also official in the archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina.|
|Ethnic groups (2005)|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Juan Manuel Santos|
|Chamber of Representatives|
|Independence from Spain|
|20 July 1810|
|7 August 1819|
• Last unitarisation
|4 July 1991|
|1,141,748 km2 (440,831 sq mi) (25th)|
• Water (%)
• January 2018 estimate
• 2005 census
|40.74/km2 (105.5/sq mi) (173rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$747.024 billion (31st)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$322.489 billion (32nd)|
• Per capita
high · 95th
|Time zone||COT (UTC−5b)|
|Date format||dd−mm−yyyy (CE)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||CO|
Columbia is located in the northwestern region of South America. Colombia is bordered to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; to the North by the Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea; to the north-west by Panama; and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. Besides the countries in South America, the Republic of Colombia is recognized to share maritime borders with the Caribbean countries of Jamaica, Haiti, the Dominican Republic and the Central American countries of Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
Colombia is the 26th largest nation in the world and the fourth-largest country in South America (after Brazil, Argentina, and Peru), with an area more than twice that of France. In Latin America, it is also the country with the third largest population after Brazil and Mexico.
The territory of what is now Colombia was inhabited by indigenous tribes which migrated from North and Central America; the Calima, Muisca, Nariño, Quimbaya, San Agustín, Sinú, Tayrona and Tierradentro civilizations and the Tolirna and Tumaco people which neighbored to the south with the Incas. The Spanish arrived in the year 1499, and initiated a conquest period against the indigenous peoples rushing for gold and other resources and subsequently began a colonization period founding towns and established direct economic trade with the Spanish empire.
Colombia was then known as Department of Cundinamarca, emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (with Panama, Ecuador and Venezuela) with the name of "New Granada", which it kept until 1856 when it became the "Grenadine Confederation". Differences between conservatives and liberal factions arose leading to a two year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created, lasting until 1886, when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia. Liberals and Conservatives engaged in a Thousand days civil war once again that led to the separation of Panama. The political tensions continued and violence broke out once again in 1948 leading to a period called La Violencia.
Since the 1960s conflict between government forces and anti-government insurgent groups and illegal paramilitary groups - both heavily funded by the cocaine trade - escalated during the 1990s. The insurgents lack the military or popular support necessary to overthrow the government, and violence has been decreasing since about 2002, but insurgents continue attacks against civilians and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence. More than 32,000 former paramilitaries had demobilized by the end of 2006 and the United Self Defense Forces of Colombia (AUC) as a formal organization had ceased to function. Still, some renegades continued to engage in criminal activities. The Colombian Government has stepped up efforts to reassert government control throughout the country, and now has a presence in every one of its municipalities.
Colombia is a standing middle power with the second largest Spanish speaking population of the world after Mexico. It is largely recognized for its culture and is also one of the largest manufacturers in South America. Colombia is also one of the most ethnically diverse nations in South America, the result of large-scale migrations during the 20th century which has caused a dramatic population growth since then. Colombia is considered to be among 17 of the most megadiverse countries in the world.
- "visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos" (PDF). Censo General 2005. Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadistica (DANE). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- Bushnell, David; Hudson, Rex A. (2010). The Society and Its Environment; Colombia: a country study (PDF). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Washington D.C. pp. 87, 92.
- "Animated clock". Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "World Economic Outlook Database: Colombia". International Monetary Fund. October 2017. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "socio-economic policies" (PDF). dane.gov.co. Retrieved 24 March 2017.
- "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- Colombian Constitution of 1991 (Title I – Concerning Fundamental Principles – Article 10)
- "LEY 47 DE 1993" (in Spanish). alcaldiabogota.gov.co. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "The official Colombian time" (in Spanish). horalegal.inm.gov.co. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- "Decreto 4175 de 2011, artículo 6, numeral 14" (in Spanish). Presidencia de la República de Colombia. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- Gerhar Sandner, Beate Ratter, Wolf Dietrich Sahr and Karsten Horsx (1993). "Conflictos Territoriales en el Mar Caribe: El conflicto fronterizo en el Golfo de Venezuela". Biblioteca Luis Angel Arango (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- The Geographer Office of the Geographer Bureau of Intelligence and Research (April 15, 1985). "Brazil-Colombia boundary" (PDF). International Boundary Study. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- CIA (December 13, 2007). "Ecuador". World Fact Book. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- (in Spanish) Tratados Internacionales limítrofes de Colombia
- (in Spanish) Colombia - Limites territoriales
- Michael Baron (May 10, 2007). "On Novak's Book and Colombia". US News. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
-  Colombia. By Krzysztof Dydynski, Published 2003 Lonely Planet Kolumbie ISBN 0864426747
- Nicolás del Castillo Mathieu (March, 1992). "LA PRIMERA VISION DE LAS COSTAS COLOMBIANAS, Repaso de Historia". Revista Credencial (in Spanish). Retrieved 2008-02-29. Check date values in:
- CIA world fact book (February 28, 2008). "Colombia". CIA. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- David R. Davis, Brett Ashley Leeds and Will H. Moore (November 21, 1998). "Measuring Dissident and state behaviour: The Intranational Political Interactions (IPI) Project" (PDF). Florida State University. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- "South America Banks on Regional Strategy to Safeguard Quarter of Earth's Biodiversity". Conservation International. Retrieved 2007-06-29.