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God is the common title by which Supreme Being is known as in religion / spirituality, theistic and deistic philosophies and other belief systems, representing either the sole deity in monotheism, or a principal deity in polytheism.
God is most often conceived of as the supernatural Creator and overseer of the Universe. Theologians have ascribed a variety of attributes to the many different conceptions of God. The most common among these include omniscience, omnipotence, omnipresence, omnibenevolence (perfect goodness), divine simplicity, and eternal and necessary existence. God has also been conceived as being incorporeal, a personal being, the source of all moral obligation, and the "greatest conceivable existent". These attributes were all supported to varying degrees by the early Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan theologians / philosophers, including Maimonides, Augustine of Hippo, and Al-Ghazali, respectively.
The One and the Many
We live in a world of constant change, yet there is an underlying unity and stability.
Every human begins as an infant and then grows into an adult. Every adult is a different object than they were as a baby—in fact, they are unrecognizable as being the same object. Yet we recognize that something has remained the same though the infant has changed into something. Likewise a corpse is nothing like the original living being, but we still recognize that something has remained constant.
We see the same stability and constancy across objects. While the world is full of trees, there is still some constancy and stability to "treeness" which never seems to change.
Many believe that the infinity of things and their changes ultimately relate back to a single object, material, or idea. The problem of finding the one thing that lies behind all things in the universe is called the problem of the one and the many.
The question of the one and the many assumes the universe is one thing. Because it is one thing, there must be one, unifying aspect behind everything. This aspect could be material, such as atoms. It could be an idea, such as number, or "mind." How the theory goes is it could be divine, such as the Christian God or the Chinese concept of Shang-ti, the "Lord on High.", but to solve the question is figuring out what that one, unifying idea is.
The doctrine of creatio ex nihilo was mostly developed due to the rising pressure of Gnosticism. This view drew a distinction between the God of the Old Testament, the one they believed had created this world, and the God of the New Testament, the one they believed had redeemed this world. The God of the OT was also regarded as a lesser deity than the God of the NT. This doctrine of creatio ex nihilo is false and unbiblical, however, as is Gnosticism false and unbiblical. According to the Bible, God created the Universe by the Logos (Greek for Word or Reason). The Logos is also a very philosophical idea, which was a familiar concept to Grecian philosophy and Judean thought even in Christ's time, and the Logos is referred to in the Old Testament and New Testament both. Genesis states God spoke the Universe into existence is how he created it. Words and ideas objectively exist. According to the Bible however, God is spirit and not flesh. He did not speak the Universe into existence with a literal mouth, but he thought it into existence. The Bible also states God has thought and mind. The Logos is not nothing, but it is even identified with Christ in the New Testament, notably in the Gospel of John, which explicitly states that in John 1:1-3: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.". Creatio ex verbum. It was out of Reason, more specifically ethereal, divine Reason.
However, it should be remembered that God as all-loving is a theological idea, and philosophical ideas require a deeper understanding. All-loving wasn't meant to mean that God loves everything, and nor would that make God a completely loving being if he were to love everything, as he would not be omnibenevolent then. For example, God incarnating as Jesus Christ, loving the world, dying for its sins and being resurrected on the 3rd day afterwards as all-loving is not God loving devilishness. It is a false interpretation of all-loving to mean God loves everything. That contradicts the scriptural principle that God hates that which is evil. In scripture, austere, punitive action by God against evil is not excessive and doesn't abrogate the principle that God is omnibenevolent. What is certain of the Abrahamic Lord God, is that he hates homosexuality. This is consistently repeated in scripture. The Lord destroyed two cities because of sexual degeneracy within. He condemns homosexuals as perverts, and criminals, and commanded that they should be executed according to Divine Law, for the preservation of society, to the benefit of life, for civilization. This means that according to scripture, homosexuality is a detestable and hateful thing to God. It is an abomination against the natural order that God set in place. That's a very important thing in Hebrewism, or Old Testament religion. Christianity is the successor and fulfillment to that, but that does not take away the principle of the prime importance of the virtue of justice. Christ didn't come to do away with the Laws. Also, Judaism is something completely different than Hebrewism. Talmudism is about Jewish supremacism, which is an unbiblical dogma. Jewish supremacist cultural Marxists that try to subvert the religion of the West are manipulative with that phrase "God is all-loving" to spread their misconceptions that others must accept neo-Bolshevist politically correct ideology, or they'll direct their hatred with slanders against Gentiles as being "evil bigots against God."
- Swinburne, R.G. "God" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Edwards, Paul. "God and the philosophers" in Honderich, Ted. (ed)The Oxford Companion to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, 1995.
- Platinga, Alvin. "God, Arguments for the Existence of," Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, 2000.