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Vietnam War

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Vietnam War
Part of the Cold War and the Indochina Wars
Bruce Crandall's UH-1D.jpg
A Bell UH-1D helicopter piloted by Major Bruce P. Crandall climbs skyward after discharging a load of U.S. infantrymen on a search and destroy mission
Date1 November 1955 (1955-11-01) – 30 April 1975 (1975-04-30) (&000000000000001900000019 years, &0000000000000180000000180 days)
LocationSouth Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos
Result

North Vietnamese and Viet Cong victory

Territorial
changes
Unification of North and South Vietnam into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Belligerents

Anti-Communist forces: South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam
 United States of America
 Republic of Korea
Australia Australia
 Philippines
 New Zealand
Thailand Thailand
Cambodia Khmer Republic
Laos Kingdom of Laos

Supported by:
Francoist Spain Spain

Republic of China Nationalist China[1]

Communist forces: North Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Viet Cong
Cambodia Khmer Rouge
Laos Pathet Lao

Supported by:
North Korea Democratic People's Republic of Korea
People's Republic of China People's Republic of China (to 1968)
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

Cuba Republic of Cuba
Commanders and leaders
South Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm
South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
South Vietnam Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
South Vietnam Cao Văn Viên
United States Lyndon B. Johnson
United States Richard Nixon
United States William Westmoreland
United States Creighton Abrams
South Korea Park Chung-hee[2]
South Korea Chae Myung-shin[2]
Cambodia Lon Nol
Cambodia Sosthene Fernandez
...and others
North Vietnam Hồ Chí Minh
North Vietnam Lê Duẩn
North Vietnam Võ Nguyên Giáp
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Hoàng Văn Thái
North Vietnam Văn Tiến Dũng
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Trần Văn Trà
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Văn Linh
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
...and others
Strength

~1,830,000 (1968)
Republic of Vietnam: 850,000
United States of America: 536,100
Free World Military Forces: 65,000[3][4]
Republic of Korea: 50,000[5]
Commonwealth of Australia: 7,672
Kingdom of Thailand, Philippines: 10,450

New Zealand: 552

~461,000
Democratic Republic of Vietnam: 287,465 (January 1968)[6]
People's Republic of China: 170,000 (1969)
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: 3,000

Democratic People's Republic of Korea: 300–600
Casualties and losses

South Vietnam Republic of Vietnam
civilian dead: ~2,000,000;[7] military dead: 220,357 (lowest est.)[8] – 316,000 dead (highest est.);[9] 1,170,000 wounded
United States United States of America
58,220 dead;[13] 303,635 wounded
South Korea Republic of Korea
5,099 dead; 10,962 wounded; 4 missing
Australia Commonwealth of Australia
521 dead; 3,000 wounded
New Zealand New Zealand
37 dead; 187 wounded
Thailand Kingdom of Thailand
1,351 dead[8]
Laos Kingdom of Laos
30,000 killed, wounded unknown[14]

Total dead: 315,384 – 2,220,357 (~2,000,000 South civilians)
Total wounded: ~1,490,000+

North VietnamProvisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam North Vietnam & NLF
~2,000,000 civilian dead;[7]
1,176,000 military dead or missing;[8] 600,000+ wounded[15]
People's Republic of China People's Republic of China
1,446 dead; 4,200 wounded
Soviet Union Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
16 dead[16]


Total dead: ~3,177,462 (~2,000,000 North civilians)
Military dead: ~1,177,462 )
Total wounded: ~604,200+

Vietnamese civilian dead: ~200,000 – 4,000,000[17]
Cambodian civilian dead: 200,000 – 300,000*
Laotian civilian dead: ~20,000 – 200,000*
Total civilian dead: ~420,000 – 2,500,000
Total dead: ~1,912,846 – 3,992,846

* indicates approximations, see Casualties below

For more information see Vietnam War casualties

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the American War, occurred from 1965 to April 30, 1975. The Vietnam Conflict is often used normally to include what occurred from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The last American troops left Vietnam on April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the so-called Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the United States-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It concluded with the North Vietnamese military victory after more than 15 years and a shame defeat for the United States and her allies mainly Australia and South Korea. The end of the war resulted in the unification of Vietnam under the communist government of the North.

Over 1.4 million military personnel were killed in the war (approximately 6% were members of the United States armed forces), while estimates of civilian fatalities range from 2 to 5.1 million. On April 30, 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon fell to the communist forces of North Vietnam, effectively ending the Vietnam War.

The fake attack that drove Americans into Vietnam War

Below information about the fake attack that drove Americans into Vietnam War are from this source [18].

In August 4, 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin's International Waters, the USS Maddox is attacked by North Vietnamese Torpedo Boats. President Lyndon Johnson orders a Retaliatory Air Strike on North Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson uses intercepted Vietnamese Transmissions to convince Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which allows him to use military force in southeast asia without a declaration of war. It leads to America's full-scale military involvement in the Vietnam war.

In 2001, Historian Robert Hanyok analyzed the intercepted vietnamese reports and found that none of them confirmed an attack on the maddox. These reports were classified and withheld from congress. Instead, congress was presented with a doctored enemy transmission which actually referred to a skirmish on August 2nd. This sea skirmish happened when the Maddox fired warning shots at North Vietnamese Boats fending off a south Vietnamese attack nearby. USS Maddox was in fact on an intelligence mission co-ordinated with South Vietnam.

In 2005, NSA declassified nearly 200 documents. They reveal that USS Maddox fired at random radar targets on a stormy night and a navy investigation and witnesses proved there were never any enemy boats there. In 2003, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara admitted the attack never happened. White House Tapes show that President Lyndon Johnson also knew the attack was not real. Lyndon Johnson was reelected to the presidency on November 3rd, 1964.

It must be noted that "the fake attack" was also used in order to deceitfully drive USA into war against Germany during World War 1[19].

Leftist mobilization

American leftists who were promoting a US defeat during the war achieved a propaganda advantage in mobilizing millions of American youth in protests with the hope of achieving a Marxist victory at home. One of their slogans at the time was, "Bring the war home!" Jewish Hollywood supported the antiwar effort with propaganda films such as M*A*S*H, Platoon, and Hair.

Quotes

Gallery

Pavnsign.jpg

References

  1. "ALLIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM". Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "The Cold Warrior". Newsweek. April 10, 2000. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  3. "Vietnam War : US Troop Strength". Historycentral.com. Retrieved 17 October 2009. [dead link]
  4. "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov.  (citing The first American ground combat troops landed in South Vietnam during March 1965, specifically the U.S. Third Marine Regiment, Third Marine Division, deployed to Vietnam from Okinawa to defend the Da Nang, Vietnam, airfield. During the height of U.S. military involvement, 31 December 1968, the breakdown of allied forces were as follows: 536,100 U.S. military personnel, with 30,610 U.S. military having been killed to date; 65,000 Free World Forces personnel; 820,000 South Vietnam Armed Forces (SVNAF) with 88,343 having been killed to date. At the war's end, there were approximately 2,200 U.S. missing in action (MIA) and prisoner of war (POW). Source: Harry G. Summers, Jr. Vietnam War Almanac, Facts on File Publishing, 1985.)
  5. Vietnam Marines 1965–73. Books.google.co.uk. 1965-03-08. Retrieved 2011-04-29. 
  6. Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, page 430
  7. 7.0 7.1 Agence France Presse 4 April 1995: "The AFP release...says that the Hanoi government revealed on April 3 that the true civilian casualties of the VN war were 2,000,000 in the north, 2,000,000 in the south. Military casualties were 1.1 million killed and 600,000 wounded in 21 years of war (1963-74). These figures were deliberately falsified during the war by the North VN nationalists to avoid demoralizing the population, according to the French article. "
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director). (2005 & 2006) (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975. [Documentary]. Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9.  </noinclude>
  9. Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations," (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System  External link in |work= (help)
  10. (February 26, 2010) America’s Wars. Department of Veterans Affairs. (Report).
  11. (February 26, 2010) American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics. Congressional Research Service. (Report).
  12. Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
  13. The figures of 58,220 and 303,644 for U.S. deaths and wounded come from the Department of Defense Statistical Information Analysis Division (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as from a Department of Veterans fact sheet dated May 2010[10] the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, dated February 26, 2010,[11] and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant.[12] Some other sources give different figures (e.g. the 2005/2006 documentary Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 cited elsewhere in this article gives a figure of 58,159 U.S. deaths,[8] The 2007 book Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended gives a figure of 58,226.)
  14. "Vietnam War Casualties". Vietnamgear.com. 3 April 1995. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  15. Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
  16. Dunnigan, James & Nofi, Albert: Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. St. Martin's Press, 2000, p. 284. ISBN 0-312-25282-X.
  17. For 2 million estimate see, Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011.  More than one of |author= and |last= specified (help) for 4 million see Agence France Presse 4 April 1995
  18. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDezRe9yqsA
  19. Jewish_role_behind_World_War_1
  20. 20.0 20.1 "American Jews and the Anti Vietnam War Movement". Harry's Place.  (Jewish) Retrieved on 14 March 2012.

External links


Part of this article consists of modified text from Metapedia, page http:en.metapedia.org/wiki/Vietnam War and/or Wikipedia, page http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam War, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.