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|Part of the Cold War and the Indochina Wars|
A Bell UH-1D helicopter piloted by Major Bruce P. Crandall climbs skyward after discharging a load of U.S. infantrymen on a search and destroy mission
|Republic of Cuba|
|Commanders and leaders|
Ngô Đình Diệm |
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ
Cao Văn Viên
Lyndon B. Johnson
File:Flag of the United States.svg Richard Nixon
Hồ Chí Minh|
Võ Nguyên Giáp
Hoàng Văn Thái
Văn Tiến Dũng
Trần Văn Trà
Nguyễn Văn Linh
Nguyễn Hữu Thọ
|Casualties and losses|
Republic of Vietnam
Total wounded: ~1,490,000+
North Vietnam & NLF
Total dead: ~3,177,462 (~2,000,000 North civilians)
Military dead: ~1,177,462 )
Total wounded: ~604,200+
Vietnamese civilian dead: ~200,000 – 4,000,000
* indicates approximations, see Casualties below
The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the American War, occurred from 1965 to April 30, 1975. The Vietnam Conflict is often used normally to include what occurred from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The last American troops left Vietnam on April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the so-called Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the United States-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It concluded with the North Vietnamese military victory after more than 15 years and a shame defeat for the United States and her allies mainly Australia and South Korea. The end of the war resulted in the unification of Vietnam under the communist government of the North.
Over 1.4 million military personnel were killed in the war (approximately 6% were members of the United States armed forces), while estimates of civilian fatalities range from 2 to 5.1 million. On April 30, 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon fell to the communist forces of North Vietnam, effectively ending the Vietnam War.
The fake attack that drove Americans into Vietnam War
Below information about the fake attack that drove Americans into Vietnam War are from this source .
In August 4, 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin's International Waters, the USS Maddox is attacked by North Vietnamese Torpedo Boats. President Lyndon Johnson orders a Retaliatory Air Strike on North Vietnam. Lyndon Johnson uses intercepted Vietnamese Transmissions to convince Congress to pass the Gulf of Tonkin resolution, which allows him to use military force in southeast asia without a declaration of war. It leads to America's full-scale military involvement in the Vietnam war.
In 2001, Historian Robert Hanyok analyzed the intercepted vietnamese reports and found that none of them confirmed an attack on the maddox. These reports were classified and withheld from congress. Instead, congress was presented with a doctored enemy transmission which actually referred to a skirmish on August 2nd. This sea skirmish happened when the Maddox fired warning shots at North Vietnamese Boats fending off a south Vietnamese attack nearby. USS Maddox was in fact on an intelligence mission co-ordinated with South Vietnam.
In 2005, NSA declassified nearly 200 documents. They reveal that USS Maddox fired at random radar targets on a stormy night and a navy investigation and witnesses proved there were never any enemy boats there. In 2003, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara admitted the attack never happened. White House Tapes show that President Lyndon Johnson also knew the attack was not real. Lyndon Johnson was reelected to the presidency on November 3rd, 1964.
It must be noted that "the fake attack" was also used in order to deceitfully drive USA into war against Germany during World War 1.
American leftists who were promoting a US defeat during the war achieved a propaganda advantage in mobilizing millions of American youth in protests with the hope of achieving a Marxist victory at home. One of their slogans at the time was, "Bring the war home!" Jewish Hollywood supported the antiwar effort with propaganda films such as M*A*S*H, Platoon, and Hair.
|“||The presence of a substantial radical minority in the American Jewish population accounts for its divergence from the national norm in its attitudes toward the Vietnam War. In 1964, Jews were twice as likely as Protestants and Catholics to favor pulling out of Vietnam altogether – and about half as likely as Protestants and Catholics to agree with the statement “Take a Stronger Stand Even If It Means Invading North Vietnam.” In 1970, when a majority of Protestants and Catholics favored fighting while negotiating or escalating the war, half of the Jewish respondents surveyed favored an immediate pullout. “The only large population group not represented among the combat deaths [in Vietnam] in proportion to their U.S. demographics were those who designated themselves Jewish,” B. G. Burkett and Glenna Whitley write in Stolen Valor (1988), their study of myths and facts about Vietnam veterans. Although Jews accounted for 2.5 percent of the U.S. population, Jewish men accounted for only 0.46 percent of the war-related deaths in the Vietnam War.||”|
|— Michael Ezra,✡ 2010, American Jews and the Anti Vietnam War Movement.|
|“||“No one has failed to notice that in the American student movement of the 1960s, students with a Jewish background played a distinctive role,” Paul Berman has observed. A nationwide survey by the American Council of Education in 1966-67 revealed that the best single predictor of campus protests was a high proportion of Jewish students. Apart from Jews, few American students in the sixties were radical. At the height of the antiwar movement in 1970, only 11 percent of American college students identified themselves as “radical or far left.” The political scientist John E. Mueller speculates that campus leftism had less to do with the supposed innate qualities of intellectuals as a “new class” or “adversary culture” than with the ethnic heritage of Jewish intellectuals. [...] While Jews were overrepresented on the anti-Cold War left in the United States, Catholic politicians and thinkers were disproportionately represented among the leaders of American anticommunism.||”|
|— Michael Ezra,✡ 2010, American Jews and the Anti Vietnam War Movement.|
- "ALLIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM". Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- "The Cold Warrior". Newsweek. April 10, 2000. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "Vietnam War : US Troop Strength". Historycentral.com. Retrieved 17 October 2009.[dead link]
- "Facts about the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection". nps.gov. (citing The first American ground combat troops landed in South Vietnam during March 1965, specifically the U.S. Third Marine Regiment, Third Marine Division, deployed to Vietnam from Okinawa to defend the Da Nang, Vietnam, airfield. During the height of U.S. military involvement, 31 December 1968, the breakdown of allied forces were as follows: 536,100 U.S. military personnel, with 30,610 U.S. military having been killed to date; 65,000 Free World Forces personnel; 820,000 South Vietnam Armed Forces (SVNAF) with 88,343 having been killed to date. At the war's end, there were approximately 2,200 U.S. missing in action (MIA) and prisoner of war (POW). Source: Harry G. Summers, Jr. Vietnam War Almanac, Facts on File Publishing, 1985.)
- Vietnam Marines 1965–73. Books.google.co.uk. 1965-03-08. Retrieved 2011-04-29.
- Vietnam War After Action Reports, BACM Research, 2009, page 430
- Agence France Presse 4 April 1995: "The AFP release...says that the Hanoi government revealed on April 3 that the true civilian casualties of the VN war were 2,000,000 in the north, 2,000,000 in the south. Military casualties were 1.1 million killed and 600,000 wounded in 21 years of war (1963-74). These figures were deliberately falsified during the war by the North VN nationalists to avoid demoralizing the population, according to the French article. "
- Aaron Ulrich (editor); Edward FeuerHerd (producer and director). (2005 & 2006) (Box set, Color, Dolby, DVD-Video, Full Screen, NTSC, Dolby, Vision Software). Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975. [Documentary]. Koch Vision. Event occurs at 321 minutes. ISBN 1-4172-2920-9. </noinclude>
- Rummel, R.J (1997), "Table 6.1A. Vietnam Democide : Estimates, Sources, and Calculations," (GIF), Freedom, Democracy, Peace; Power, Democide, and War, University of Hawaii System External link in
- (February 26, 2010) America’s Wars. Department of Veterans Affairs. (Report).
- (February 26, 2010) American War and Military Operations: Casualties: Lists and Statistics. Congressional Research Service. (Report).
- Lawrence 2009, pp. 65, 107, 154, 217
- The figures of 58,220 and 303,644 for U.S. deaths and wounded come from the Department of Defense Statistical Information Analysis Division (SIAD), Defense Manpower Data Center, as well as from a Department of Veterans fact sheet dated May 2010 the CRS (Congressional Research Service) Report for Congress, American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics, dated February 26, 2010, and the book Crucible Vietnam: Memoir of an Infantry Lieutenant. Some other sources give different figures (e.g. the 2005/2006 documentary Heart of Darkness: The Vietnam War Chronicles 1945–1975 cited elsewhere in this article gives a figure of 58,159 U.S. deaths, The 2007 book Vietnam Sons: For Some, the War Never Ended gives a figure of 58,226.)
- "Vietnam War Casualties". Vietnamgear.com. 3 April 1995. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
- Soames, John. A History of the World, Routledge, 2005.
- Dunnigan, James & Nofi, Albert: Dirty Little Secrets of the Vietnam War: Military Information You're Not Supposed to Know. St. Martin's Press, 2000, p. 284. ISBN 0-312-25282-X.
- For 2 million estimate see, Shenon, Philip (23 April 1995). "20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 February 2011. More than one of
|last=specified (help) for 4 million see Agence France Presse 4 April 1995
- "American Jews and the Anti Vietnam War Movement". Harry's Place. (Jewish) Retrieved on 14 March 2012.
- How the United States started the Vietnam War at VHO
- Timeline of the Vietnam War at History Leaning Site