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|Vatican City State|
Anthem: "Inno e Marcia Pontificale" (Italian)
"Pontifical Anthem and March"
|Ethnic groups||Italians, Swiss (Swiss Guards), other|
|Pope Benedict XVI|
|Independence from the Kingdom of Italy|
|11 February 1929|
|0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi) (235th)|
• July 2010 estimate
|1,877/km2 (4,861.4/sq mi) (6th)|
|Currency||Euro (€) (EUR)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
• Summer (DST)
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||VA|
Vatican City, officially State of the Vatican City, is a landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome. At approximately 108.7 acres, it is the smallest independent state in the world.
The state came into existence by virtue of the Lateran Treaty in 1929, which speaks of it as a new creation (Preamble and Article III), not as a vestige of the much larger Papal States (756 to 1870) that had previously encompassed central Italy, most of which was absorbed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, and the final part, the city of Rome and a small area close to it, ten years later.
Vatican City is a non-hereditary, elected monarchy that is ruled by the Bishop of Rome — the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all clergymen of the Catholic Church. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See and the location of the Apostolic Palace — the Pope's official residence — and of much of the Roman Curia.
For almost 1000 years (324-1309) the Popes lived at the Lateran Palace on the Caelian Hill in the east of Rome. Only because the Lateran building was out of repair on their return from 68 years in Avignon have they since 1377 lived in the Vatican or, for a while, at the Quirinal, now the residence of the president of Italy. The Lateran Treaty by which the Vatican City State was set up is so called because it was signed in the restored Lateran building, which is now the residence of the Pope's Cardinal Vicar General for the City of Rome. There have been two Vatican Councils, but five Lateran Councils. The Basilica of St. John Lateran, not the St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, remains the Pope's cathedral.
- Vatican City is a city-state
- In accordance with paragraph 2 of the Legge sulle fonti del diritto of 7 June 1929, all laws and regulations of the state are published in the Italian-language Supplemento per le leggi e disposizioni dello Stato della Città del Vaticano attached to the Acta Apostolicae Sedis. The text of the first seven items published in that supplement is given here. While the state itself uses only Italian, many other languages are used by institutions situated within the state, such as the Holy See, the Pontifical Swiss Guard, and the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The Holy See uses Latin as an official language and French as a diplomatic language; in addition, its Secretariat of State uses English, German, Italian, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. The Swiss Guard, in which commands on parade are given in German, also uses French and Italian in all its official ceremonies. The semi-official Holy See newspaper L'Osservatore Romano uses English, French, German, Italian, Malayalam, Polish, Portuguese and Spanish. Vatican Radio uses 40 languages, including Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Byelorussian, Bulgarian, Chinese, Croatian, Czech, Esperanto, English, Filipino, French, German, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Polish, Portuguese, Rumanian, Russian, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Spanish, Swahili, Tamil, Tigrigna, Ukrainian, and Vietnamese.
- "CIA - The World Factbook - Holy See (Vatican City)". Cia.gov. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
- Holy See (Vatican City), The World Factbook, CIA. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- Since 1 January 2002. www.vatican.va Holy See Press office — General Information. Retrieved 23 October 2009.
- Before 2002, the Vatican lira (on par with the Italian lira)
- Visitors and tourists are not permitted to drive inside the Vatican without specific permission, which is normally granted only to those who have business with some office in the Vatican.
- ITU-T assigned code 379 to Vatican City. However, Vatican City is included in the Italian telephone numbering plan and uses the Italian country code 39, followed by 06 (for Rome) and 698.
- www.vatican.va Holy See Press office — General Information. Retrieved 23 October 2009.