UK arrested Tommy Robinson for reporting child-rape gangs that the government caters to. The UK banned reporting of his arrest, denied him a lawyer, and is trying to have him assassinated in prison. Regardless of how you feel about his views, this is a totalitarian government.
Tommy Robinson isn't the first to that the UK has jailed after a secret trial. Melanie Shaw tried to expose child abuse in a Nottinghamshire kids home -- it wasn't foreigners doing the molesting, but many members of the UK's parliament. The government kidnapped her child and permanently took it away. Police from 3 forces have treated her like a terrorist and themselves broken the law. Police even constantly come by to rob her phone and money. She was tried in a case so secret the court staff had no knowledge of it. Her lawyer, like Tommy's, wasn't present. She has been held for over 2 years in Peterborough Prison. read, read
A legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral.
Possible specific characteristics
An upper house is usually different from the lower house in at least one of the following respects:
- In a "parliamentary system", it has much less power than the lower house:
- Only limited legislative matters, such as constitutional amendments, require its approval.
- It is a house of review which cannot veto legislation, nor initiate legislation on money.
- In parliamentary system, it often cannot vote a motion of no confidence against the government, while the lower house always can.
- In a "presidential system":
- It may have equal or nearly equal power with the lower house.
- It may have specific powers not granted to the lower house. For example:
- In some countries, its members are not popularly elected; membership may be indirect, hereditary or by appointment.
- Its members may be elected with a different voting system than that used to elect the lower house (for example, upper houses in Australia and its states are usually elected by proportional representation, whereas lower houses are not).
- Less populated states, provinces, or administrative divisions may be better represented in the upper house than in the lower house; representation is not completely proportional to population (or not at all).
- Members' terms are longer than in the lower house, and may be for life.
- Members may be elected in portions, for staggered terms, rather than all at one time.
- In some countries, the upper house cannot be dissolved at all, or can be dissolved only in more limited circumstances than the lower house.
- It typically has fewer members or seats than the lower house (except in UK).
- It may have a higher age of candidacy than the lower house.
Notes and references
- Bicameralism (1997) by George Tsebelis