UK arrested Tommy Robinson for reporting child-rape gangs that the government caters to. The UK banned reporting of his arrest, denied him a lawyer, and is trying to have him assassinated in prison. Regardless of how you feel about his views, this is a totalitarian government.

Tommy Robinson isn't the first to that the UK has jailed after a secret trial. Melanie Shaw tried to expose child abuse in a Nottinghamshire kids home -- it wasn't foreigners doing the molesting, but many members of the UK's parliament. The government kidnapped her child and permanently took it away. Police from 3 forces have treated her like a terrorist and themselves broken the law. Police even constantly come by to rob her phone and money. She was tried in a case so secret the court staff had no knowledge of it. Her lawyer, like Tommy's, wasn't present. She has been held for over 2 years in Peterborough Prison. read, read

Thirty Years' War

From en-Rightpedia
Jump to: navigation, search
30 Years War
The Hanging by Jacques Callot.jpg
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1632.
Date1618–1648
LocationEurope (primarily present day Germany)
Result

Peace of Westphalia

Belligerents

Protestant States and Allies Sweden Sweden
 France[1]
 Bohemia
Denmark Denmark-Norway (1625–1629)[2]
 Saxony
 United Provinces
Electoral Palatinate
Brunswick-Lüneburg Arms.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
 England[3]
 Scotland
Brandenburg-Prussia
Transylvania
Hungarian Anti-Habsburg Rebels[4]
Zaporozhian Cossacks[citation needed]

 Ottoman Empire

Roman Catholic States and Allies  Holy Roman Empire[5]

Spain and its possessions

Denmark Denmark-Norway (1643–1645)[2]
Commanders and leaders

Sweden Gustavus II Adolphus 
Sweden Johan Banér
Sweden Lennart Torstenson
Sweden Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Sweden Charles X Gustav
Kingdom of France Louis XIII of France
Kingdom of France Cardinal Richelieu
Kingdom of France Marquis de Feuquieres 
Kingdom of France Louis II de Bourbon
Kingdom of France Vicomte de Turenne
Bohemia Frederick V
Bohemia Jindrich Matyas Thurn
Bohemia Christian I of Anhalt-Bernburg
Denmark Christian IV of Denmark
Electorate of Saxony Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
Electorate of Saxony Johann Georg I of Saxony
Dutch Republic Maurice of Nassau
Dutch Republic Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Dutch Republic William of Nassau
Dutch Republic Frederik Hendrik of Orange
Dutch Republic Maarten Tromp
Dutch Republic Ernst Casimir
Dutch Republic Hendrik Casimir I
Kingdom of England Duke of Buckingham
Kingdom of Scotland Earl of Leven
Gabriel Bethlen
Ernst von Mansfeld
Christian of Brunswick

Bohdan Khmelnytsky[citation needed]

Holy Roman Empire Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly 
Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Empire Franz von Mercy 
Holy Roman Empire Johann von Werth
Holy Roman EmpireGottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim
Fahne Kurbayern.gif Maximilian I
Spain Philip IV of Spain
Spain Count-Duke of Olivares
Spain Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Spain Ambrosio Spinola
Spain Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Spain Gómez Suárez de Figueroa
Spain Fadrique de Toledo
Spain Antonio de Oquendo
Spain Francisco de Melo

Spain Diego Felipez de Guzmán
Strength

495,000 men:

  • 150,000 Swedish
  • 20,000 Danish & Norwegian
  • 75,000 Dutch
  • Approx: 100–150,000 Germans
  • 150,000 French
  • 20–30,000 Hungarians (Anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels)
  • 6,000 Transylvanians
    [6]

450,000 men:

  • 300,000 Spanish (includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Italy)
  • 100–200,000 Germans
  • Approx: 20,000 Hungarian and Croatian cavalry[7]
Casualties and losses
8,000,000 including civilian casualties.[8]
Template:Campaignbox Thirty Years' War

Template:Campaignbox Palatinate campaign

Template:Campaignbox Anglo–Spanish War (1625–1630)

The Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history. The war was fought primarily (though not exclusively) in what is now Germany and at various points involved most of the countries of Europe. Naval warfare also reached overseas and shaped the colonial formation of future nations.

The origins of the conflict and goals of the participants were complex and no single cause can accurately be described as the main reason for the fighting. Initially the war was fought largely as a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire, although disputes over the internal politics and balance of power within the Empire played a significant part. Gradually, the war developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European powers.[9][10] In this general phase, the war became more a continuation of the Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence, and in turn led to further warfare between France and the Habsburg powers, and less specifically about religion.[11]

A major impact of the Thirty Years' War was the extensive destruction of entire regions, denuded by the foraging armies (bellum se ipsum alet). Episodes of famine and disease significantly decreased the populace of the German states, Bohemia, the Low Countries and Italy, while bankrupting most of the combatant powers. While the regiments within each army were not strictly mercenary in that they were not guns for hire that changed sides from battle to battle, the individual soldiers that made up the regiments for the most part probably were. The problem of discipline was made more difficult still by the ad hoc nature of 17th century military financing. Armies were expected to be largely self-funding from loot taken or tribute extorted from the settlements where they operated. This encouraged a form of lawlessness that imposed often severe hardship on inhabitants of the occupied territory. Some of the quarrels that provoked the war went unresolved for a much longer time. The Thirty Years' War was ended with the treaties of Osnabrück and Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia.[12]

References

  1. George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana, The American Cyclopaedia, New York, 1874, p. 250, "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis...". *[1] The original Banner of France was strewn with fleurs-de-lis. *[2]:on the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)." This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.: "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour." France entered the war in 1635.
  2. 2.0 2.1 1625–1629. Aligned with the Catholic Powers 1643–1645.
  3. At war with Spain 1625–30 (and France 1627–29).
  4. Scores Hungarians was fall into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620. Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963 547 070 3
  5. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.: "The Austrian imperial standard has, on a yellow ground, the black double-headed eagle, on the breast and wings of which are imposed shields bearing the arms of the provinces of the empire. The flag is bordered all round, the border being composed of equal-sided triangles with their apices alternately inwards and outwards, those with their apices pointing inwards being alternately yellow and white, the others alternately scarlet and black ." Also, Whitney Smith, Flags through the ages and across the world, McGraw-Hill, England, 1975 ISBN 0-07-059093-1, pp.114 – 119, "The imperial banner was a golden yellow cloth...bearing a black eagle...The double-headed eagle was finally established by Sigismund as regent...".
  6. Gabriel Bethlen's army numbered 5,000 Hungarian pikeman and 1,000 German mercenary, with the anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels numbered together approx. 35,000 men. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963 547 085 1
  7. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963 547 085 1
  8. Norman Davies, Europe, p.568
  9. "The Thirty-Years-War". Western New England College. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  10. "::The Thirty Years War 1621 to 1626:". www.historylearningsite.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  11. "Thirty Years' War". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  12. Richard W. Rahn (2006-12-21). "Avoiding a Thirty Years War". The Washington Post. www.discovery.org. Retrieved 2008-05-25. 
Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, page http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirty Years' War, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.