UK arrested Tommy Robinson for reporting child-rape gangs that the government caters to. The UK banned reporting of his arrest, denied him a lawyer, and is trying to have him assassinated in prison. Regardless of how you feel about his views, this is a totalitarian government.

Tommy Robinson isn't the first to that the UK has jailed after a secret trial. Melanie Shaw tried to expose child abuse in a Nottinghamshire kids home -- it wasn't foreigners doing the molesting, but many members of the UK's parliament. The government kidnapped her child and permanently took it away. Police from 3 forces have treated her like a terrorist and themselves broken the law. Police even constantly come by to rob her phone and money. She was tried in a case so secret the court staff had no knowledge of it. Her lawyer, like Tommy's, wasn't present. She has been held for over 2 years in Peterborough Prison. read, read

Race and intelligence

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The relationship between race and intelligence has been the subject of a large and complex scientific and public debate often influenced by political correctness. Human races differ on measures of intelligence such as on IQ tests. The role of genetics as a cause for these differences has been examined in numerous scientific studies. The IQ differences are argued to be responsible for numerous important societal effects.

History

Racial differences in intelligence was historically the commonly accepted view. Early scientific research relied on methods such as skull and brain measurements which reinforced this. The first IQ test was created 1905. Large scale IQ testing, such as of those drafted during WWI, found racial IQ differences.

Race research in general, including also race and intelligence research, become increasingly a taboo subject after WWII. During this time the Pioneer Fund was influential in keeping some research and debate alive.

In 1969 Arthur Jensen caused great controversy with the article "How Much Can We Boost IQ and School Achievement?" in which he argued for genetics being an important explanation for the measured differences. Further public debate ensued after the publication in 1994 of The Bell Curve which argued similarly as well as stating that the IQ differences was an important explanation for many social differences between the races such as regarding crime, education, unemployment, etc.

In response to the Bell Curve debate, the statement "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" was signed by 52 professors and the American Psychological Association created a committee which in 1995 published the report "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" which acknowledged the gap between the average IQ scores of Whites and Blacks as well as the importance of IQ. It concluded "In short, no adequate explanation of the differential between the IQ means of Blacks and Whites is presently available." Jensen commented that "Considering that the report was commissioned by the APA, I was surprised it went as far as it did. Viewed in that light, I am not especially displeased by it."[1]

The 2000s saw a widening of the debate from mainly being about US racial differences to also include worldwide racial differences. Richard Lynn published several books which systematically reviewed earlier worldwide IQ testing. He estimated the average IQs of races and the average IQ of countries as well as argued for many and important practical effects due to the IQ differences. Many other researchers have published further studies based on this subject.

Another trend is the continued rapid advance in genetic research which may in the near future definitely settle the debate regarding whether the racial IQ differences are partially genetic or not.

Measured race differences

Worldwide

Richard Lynn in his 2006 book Race Differences in Intelligence reviewed the literature on worldwide IQ testing and calculated the average IQs for different races based on earlier IQ test results.

  • Aborigines: In Australia 62. In New Guinea 63.
  • Arctic People: In North America 91.
  • Bushmen: In Southwest Africa 54.
  • East Asians: In East Asia 105. In the United States 101. Elsewhere 102.
  • Europeans: In Europe 99. Outside Europe 99.
  • Native Americans. In North America 86. In Latin America 86.
  • Pacific Islander: In Pacific Islands 85. In New Zealand 90.
  • South Asians and North Africans: In South Asia 84. In Africa 86. In Fiji, etc 85. In Europe 85. In Britain 92.
  • Southeast Asians: In Southeast Asia 87. In the United States 93.
  • Sub-Saharan Africans: In Africa 67. In the Caribbean 71. In the United States and the Netherlands 85. In Britain 86.

These are measured (phenotypic) average IQs. Differences for the same race between developed and developing countries can be explained by factors such as malnutrition being prevalent in developing nations. Thus, Lynn estimates that the genotypic average IQ of Sub-Saharan Africans is 80 rather than the measured phenotypic 67. The genotypic average IQ of Blacks in the United States is estimated to be somewhat higher at 85 due to some interbreeding with Europeans.

US Black-White gap

Average SAT scores improve when less blacks take the SATs.

Rushton and Jensen (2005 and 2010) write that in the United States, Blacks and Whites have been the subjects of the greatest number of studies. These studies have shown that the Black-White IQ difference is about 15 to 18 points or 1 to 1.1 standard deviations (SDs).[2][3]

Such a difference means that the White average IQ is higher than that of 80-85% of Blacks.[3] However, it should be noted that for "bell curve" distributions ("normal distributions"), such as for IQ and many other traits, if there is an average difference between two groups, then it will be amplified at the extremes. Thus, there is a 30:1 ratio of men to women who have a height of 5 feet ten inches; there is a 2000:1 ratio for a height of 6 feet. Similarly IQ differences will be most pronounced at extreme IQs.[4]

The 1996 America Psychological Association's report "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" and the 1994 statement "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" gave similar numbers.[5][6]

Roth et al. (2001) in a meta-analysis reviewed the results of over 6 million participants on tests of cognitive ability or aptitude found a Black-White gap of 1.1 SD. Consistent results were found for college and university application tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (N = 2.4 million) and Graduate Record Examination (N = 2.3 million), as well as for tests of job applicants in corporate sections (N = 0.5 million) and in the military (N = 0.4 million).[7]

Some studies have argued that the gap has narrowed by up to a third but has been criticized for selective exclusion of opposing results, incorrect calculations, or for this occurring on the tests measuring the g factor less well. If a narrowing has occurred it may have stopped in recent times. Some narrowing is compatible with the gap being partly environmental. Other studies have found no narrowing. The meta-analytic review by Roth et al. stated that any narrowing was "either small, potentially a function of sampling error...or nonexistent for highly g loaded instruments”[2][8]

Hispanics

Hispanics is a diverse group that may have European, Native American, and Sub-Saharan African origins in varying proportions. White Hispanics may be racially White.

In the US the tested average IQ of Hispanics is typically intermediate between that of Blacks and Whites.[5]

Jews

Gypsies

Several studies of the IQ of Gypsies, a people of South Asian origin living in Europe since several centuries but with little intermarrying with other groups, have found average IQs ranging from 70 to 83.[9]

During a Slovak study in the 90's, 23 510 children in the age of 6 – 14 years in the district of Banská Bystrica, Slovakia, were given a Wechsler Scale test. A total of 510 children (2,16 %) were diagnosed as mentally retarded (with an IQ 70 or less). 0,9 % of the non-Gypsies were diagnosed as mentally retarded, as opposed to 21,5 % Gypsies. Although the Gypsy children constituted only 6 % of the testing sample, they counted for 60,7 % of the mentally retarded. [10]

The genetics or not debate

The scientific debate regarding whether the measured racial IQ differences is partially genetic involves numerous different scientific studies using many different kinds of evidence. It sometimes uses non-trivial mathematics. These arguments have been summarized in several long review articles which are linked to in the "External links" section. This section will only briefly review some more important arguments and misconceptions.

Opinion of scientists

There are no recent surveys regarding the views of scientists. The only survey ever done may be the 1987 "Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence and Aptitude Testing" which was published in journal American Psychologist. It surveyed 1020 IQ experts 661 of which completed the questionnaire. One question was "Which of the following best characterizes your opinion of the heritability of black-white differences in IQ?". 14% declined to answer the question. 24% voted that there was insufficient evidence to give an answer. 1% voted that the gap was "due entirely to genetic variation". 15% voted that it "due entirely to environmental variation". 45% voted that it was a "product of genetic and environmental variation".[11]

The survey formed one part of the 1988 book The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy which argued that the public was misled regarding expert opinion on the issue.[12]

Ad hominem attacks

Those arguing for a genetic explanation, sometimes referred to as "hereditarians", are frequently subjected to various forms of ad hominem personal attacks. This may include accusations of being "racist" (in some extremely negative sense), associations with claimed "racists", claimed "racists" using the research etc. Obviously ad hominem personal attacks are not scientifically valid arguments regarding what causes the racial IQ differences.

A somewhat more sophisticated ad hominem attack method is more or less openly insinuating that the researchers are bribed by the Pioneer Fund. This despite many hereditarians never having received any research funding by the Pioneer Fund. The argument may then be that these researchers are relying on earlier research funded by the Pioneer Fund. This ignores the often completely independent research done by these researchers. This also ignores that a researcher may have a far easier career and even physical security if being politically correct. One example being that the Nobel Prize winner and discoverer of DNA James Watson was essentially fired for publicly expressing a hereditarian view.[13] Finnish police considered starting a criminal investigation of Tatu Vanhanen, co-author of IQ and the Wealth of Nations, for expressing hereditarian views.[14]

Race denialism

Race denialism may be used as an attempted argument against race and IQ research. However, it should be noted that even if races in the sense of subspecies were proven to be incorrect, then this does not actually make the genetic debate disappear. Blacks and Whites would still differ genetically regarding, for example, the genes for skin color and the genetically determined prevalence of sickle-cell anemia. So they could differ also regarding IQ genes. It is perfectly possible to study the role of genetics as an explanation for differences between non-subspecies groups. Current examples would include the enormous amount of medical research regarding the genetic differences between those having a certain disease and those not having this disease.

Very low IQ scores for some races

Some animals show: tool use and construction, sense of humor, complex communication, emotions, culture, self-awareness, counting, and long-term memory. The less intelligent end of the human gene pool might only seem higher than other animals because of the advantage of language and education.

IQ values such as the 54 for Bushmen have been by some as implausible low since it would a give a diagnosis of mental retardation in European countries. However, Europeans with more severe forms of mental retardation often have genetic diseases that cause many other problems beside the low IQ. A better comparison is with European children with comparable IQ. An IQ of 54 is equivalent to the average IQ of European 8 years old children. These can learn to read, write, and do arithmetic. Historically the great majority European children worked productively at this age. This is also the case today for many children of this age in developing nations.[15]

Socioeconomic factors

Controlling for SES[16] only reduces the US Black-White IQ gap by a third or 5 points. If there are racial genetic differences, then this figure is overstated since part of the differences in parental SES[16] are due to differences in parental IQ. Furthermore, an environment only explanation predicts that the IQ gap would be smaller at higher levels of parental SES[16] since these children would be less exposed to the environmental factors lowering IQ. However, the gap is actually larger at higher parental SES[16] levels.[3]

There are also studies finding higher average IQ for East Asians, American Indians, and Inuit with similar or worse SES[16] than Blacks. Studies have also found that when comparing Black and White children regarding the geographical areas of their homes, the schools they attend, and other ?ne grade socioeconomic indicators, then the Black children from the best areas and schools (those producing the highest average scores) still average slightly lower on IQ than the White children with the worst socioeconomic factors.[3]

Test bias

The American Psychological Association's report Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns stated that the US Black-White IQ gap "does not result from any obvious biases in test construction and administration, nor does it simply reflect differences in socioeconomic status." It also stated that "Considered as predictors of future performance, the tests do not seem to be biased against African Americans" and "It has been suggested that various aspects of the way tests are formulated and administered may put African Americans at a disadvantage...Many of these suggestions are plausible, and such mechanisms may play a role in particular cases. Controlled studies have shown, however, that none of them contributes substantially to the Black/White differential...Moreover, efforts to devise reliable and valid tests that would minimize disadvantages of this kind have been unsuccessful."[5]

The situation in other countries may be different. IQ testing in poor countries may also have various other problems such as only very small studies being available. On the other hand there are also very large scale international student assessment tests that avoid many of these problems. See countries and intelligence. There may also be problems with testing US immigrants who are not native English speakers such as if using verbal IQ tests. However, the genetics or not debate is primarily about the very well studied US Black-White gap with the results regarding the other gaps only used as supplementary evidence.

Stereotype threat

Stereotype threat is an argued fear that a person's behavior will confirm an existing stereotype of a group to which the person belongs. This may in turn lead to an impairment of the person's performance. This has been seen as one explanation for the racial gaps.

Early laboratory experiments finding a stereotype threat effect has been greatly misreported, in both popular and academic literature, as showing that stereotype threat explains the whole gap.[17] An unpublished "meta-analysis of 55 published and unpublished studies of this effect shows clear signs of publication bias. The effect varies widely across studies, and is generally small. Although elite university undergraduates may underperform on cognitive tests due to stereotype threat, this effect does not generalize to non-adapted standardized tests, high-stakes settings, and less academically gifted test-takers. Stereotype threat cannot explain the difference in mean cognitive test performance between African Americans and European Americans."[18][19]

Consistent migrant pattern

A finding which favors the hereditarian hypothesis is that the same pattern emerges wherever races co-habit. As Lynn notes:

"The evolutionary theory does however predict that when different races occupy approximately similar environments, such as for instance in the United States, Britain and the Netherlands, the intelligence differences will remain. This prediction has been examined in twenty three societies worldwide in Lynn (2008) and has been confirmed in every case. If a multiracial society is found where these race differences in intelligence are absent, the evolutionary and genetic theory of these differences would be falsified. Those who maintain that there are no genetic differences in intelligence between the races are urged to attempt this task." (Consistency of race differences in intelligence over millennia: A comment on Wicherts, Borsboom and Dolan)

West Indians of African origin that emigrate to the US are more successful than US Blacks. This has been seen as possible evidence for some environmental factor affecting US Blacks negatively. Another explanation is that these emigrants are not random sample of West Indians of African origin but a selected group with unusual characteristics. One 2008 study wrote that "West Indian success can be attributed entirely to the greater talent and ambition of those who choose to move. Similarly, the subset of African Americans who are voluntary internal migrants are better off than their less venturesome counterparts. Once this point is clear, it is easy to see why West Indian success offers no lessons for African American improvement."[20]

Intervention programs

In the middle of the twentieth century a large number of early childhood intervention programs, such as the Head Start program, were tried with one expectation being that these would eliminate or substantially reduce various IQ gaps including the racial IQ gaps. Large initial IQ gains were also found but the initial enthusiasm declined as it become apparent that the IQ or achievement tests gains soon faded away as the children grew older. For example, a 1995 review of 36 such early intervention programs found no consistent pattern of lasting effects on IQ or achievement tests.[21]

A few of the programs have found longer lasting effects contrary to this general pattern. The most well-known may be the Abecedarian Early Intervention Project which found limited IQ gains lasting to adulthood. However, there have been various criticisms. One is that when the intervention and control groups were first tested after 1.6 months of intervention there was already a significant difference and this did not improve further during 4.5 years of massive intervention. This may suggest that the intervention group already had a higher IQ before the intervention started which is an effect that may have happened by chance when the small group of children were randomly assigned to either the intervention or the control group. The other few claimed exceptions have been criticized due to poor methodology, "teaching the test", and even a conviction of misuse of federal funds.[21][22]

Adoption

The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study studied 265 children adopted by White upper-middle-class parents with an average IQ of 120. Despite this similar environment, consistent racial differences were found on IQ, school grades, class ranks, and aptitude tests. At age 17 Whites scored 106, mixed race 99, and Blacks 89. 89 was also the average score for Blacks in general in Minnesota. The same difference between mixed race and Black children occurred also in in some cases in which the adopting parents wrongly thought that mixed race children had two Black parents. These results caused considerable debate. Non-hereditarians have raised objections such as the Black and mixed race children having psychological problems due to identity issues, possibly being placed in relatively poorer homes, and being adopted later and having more prior foster home placements both of which is associated with lower IQ. Hereditarians have argued that none of these are convincing explanations.[2][3]

There are also three studies of adopted East Asian Children who in some cases were malnourished and adopted late. Despite this, and presumably also identity issues, they scored highly on IQ tests.[2]

Non-hereditarians have argued that two other adoption studies give opposing results. Hereditarians have argued that these results are dubious since the children were only tested when young. This since it is well established that the effect of genes on IQ becomes stronger and the effect of the family environment weakens as children age. This effect was seen in the Minnesota study where the Black children scored much higher (97) at age 7 than at age 17 (89).[2]

Racial admixture

Some non-hereditarians have argued that racial admixture studies provide the best evidence against hereditarians. Hereditarians have in return replied that the cited studies are very old (median publishing date 1960), not replicated, and non-decisive.[2] Some of the adoption studies are also racial admixture studies by including adopted mixed race children.

A study of comparing 83 German White children with 98 mixed race children born to post-WWII German mothers and "Black" soldiers found only very small IQ differences. As for adoption studies on young children, this study has been criticized for not having any follow-up when the children were older. 20-25% of the "Black" soldiers were from French North Africa. The soldiers from the US almost certainly had higher IQ than the average Black due to Army General Classification Test excluding 30% of Blacks.[2]

There is also a study finding a significant IQ difference between mixed race children born to White mothers versus Black mothers. This is argued to support an environmental explanation. Again it has been criticized for only testing the children when young. The White mothers had longer education and thus likely a higher IQ. The two groups also scored intermediately between the average IQs of the Black and White children in the study.[2]

US Blacks have on average 20% European ancestry. If the partially genetic explanation is correct, then one would expect that those with more European genes would have higher IQ and brain weight. Studies using skin color as an indirect measure of the degree of European genes of Blacks have found a weak such relationship. This has been seen as an hereditarian argument. Non-hereditarians have argued this may be due to societal advantages to Blacks from having lighter skin color. Another method is by examining the relationship between the degree of European blood groups and IQ. Two studies from the 1970s argued that there were no such relationship. These have been criticized for using genetic makers that would have been unable to detect a relationship. A study using the possibly more subjective method of self-reported degree of European ancestry has been argued to support the non-hereditarians.[2][23]

Hereditarians have pointed out more recent studies in the US and South Africa finding that the average IQ of the populations of mixed Black and White origin is intermediate between that of Blacks and Whites. In the case of the US study explanations based on social class and "discrimination based on skin tone" were argued to be ruled out or controlled for. In certain US areas where Blacks have a low degree European ancestry their average IQ is unusually low.[2][3]

Racial admixture as a future solution

Genetic ancestry tests make possible a dispositive test of the hereditarian hypothesis. Mixed race individuals achieve mid range IQs in adulthood, even after adoption into white middle class families. The only possible causal mechanisms are genes or "half-strength" societal discrimination, presumably based on apparent ancestry. Since brain genes and appearance genes recombine separately at least to some degree, individuals who appear more black should achieve lower IQs than whiter looking individuals despite having the same level of admixture as determined by a genetic ancestry test, if societal discrimination is a factor. By correlating IQ to genetic ancestry and apparent ancestry estimated from photographs at the same time it should be possible to apportion weight to each factor. A Brazilian study found that socio-economic status correlated to genomic ancestry better than skin color, supporting a hereditarian hypothesis.[24]

Emil Kirkegaard has suggested it may be possible to use only genomic data, since both socioeconomic status (SES) and appearance can now be predicted from genomic data. The low power of genomic data to predict SES would require a large sample size however, in the order of one hundred thousand.[25]. This is presently feasible although companies such as 23andMe won't release data for this purpose. Using methods such as compressed sensing may increase GWAS hits, increase predictive power of genomic data, and reduce sample sizes to establish heritability of complex traits.[26] Recent GWAS studies have captured a significant proportion of the heritability of IQ.[27][28]

Inbreeding depression, g loadings, and the Flynn effect

In green countries, at least 20 percent and, in some cases, more than 50 percent of marriages fall into this category. Pink countries report 1 to 10 percent consanguinity; peach-colored countries, less than 1 percent. Map shows white people inbreed least.

Inbreeding depression refers to the lowered IQ in the children of closely related parents due to inbreeding. Different IQ tests, and the different subtests in a test, are affected to different degrees by inbreeding depression. This is one measure of which tests or subtests are relatively more dependent on IQ genes as compared to environmental factors. Black-White IQ differences are largest on those tests and subtests most affected by inbreeding depression. This has been seen as evidence for a genetic explanation.[2]

The g factor (general factor) is often seen as the underlying general mental ability that is measured more or less well by different cognitive tests. A test's g loading, or a subtest's g loading, refers to how well it correlates with the g factor. The g factor has been argued, based on evidence such as twin studies, to be largely genetically determined. Black-White IQ differences are largest on those tests and subtests having the highest g loadings. This has also been seen as evidence for a genetic explanation.[2]

The Flynn effect refers to the observed worldwide slow increase in average IQ test scores. A variety of explanations have been proposed such as increased familiarity with taking tests and improved nutrition during childhood which affects the developing brain. This has been seen as evidence for that IQ can be changed significantly by environmental factors and that the racial IQ gaps may eventually disappear. However, at least in the US and some other developed nations the gains from the Flynn effect correlate negatively with g loadings and inbreeding depression. This argued to show that that at least in those countries the environmentally caused Flynn effect will not significantly narrow the largely genetically determined Black-White IQ gap.[8]

It should be borne in mind that simply matching alleles to IQ does not demonstrate an effect mediated directly through the brain, since various traits can have socially mediated effects.

Regression to the mean

Regression to the mean refer to the tendency for an exceptional result, such as getting all 6s or all 1s when rolling several dice, to be followed by less exceptional results (regression) that is closer to the average (mean) result. Hereditarians argue that the relatives of Blacks and White with exceptional IQs, low or high, will show predictable differences in regression due to the Black and White populations having different genetically determined average IQs. These predictions are argued to be confirmed. The same effect may possibly happen also due to environmental factors that behave similarly to IQ genes but hereditarians argue that this is unlikely and no such factors have been presented.[2][3]

A genetic regression to the mean can explain why Black children born to well-educated, affluent parents have test scores 2 to 4 points lower than do White children born to poorly-educated, impoverished parents.[2]

Reaction time

The reaction time in response to a stimuli can be measured and tested on a variety off different tasks. Differences in reaction time are argued to be due to neurophysiological differences in the brain's ability to process information which is also what IQ tests measure. Due to the unusual nature of the testing it is unlikely to be influenced practice or education. Non-hereditarians have dismissed it as having a low and uncertain correlation and with IQ. The related measure decision time has been similarly dismissed. Hereditarians have argued that this only applies to when one task is used. When the results from different tasks are combined, as is also done in IQ tests, the correlation between IQ and reaction time is 0.6-0.7. Racial differences are found consistent with those from IQ testing. Just as for IQ these racial differences are largest on the tasks that best measure the g factor.[2]

Brain size

Hereditarians argued that when reviewing numerous studies, then indirectly measured brain size, such as from skull measurements, have a 0.2 correlation with IQ and MRI measured brain size have a 0.4 correlation. Brain size is highly heritable. A large number of studies have found racial differences in brain size. Non-hereditarians have argued that there are a few studies finding no racial differences or no relationship between brain size and IQ. Furthermore, brain size differences may be due to poor environmental factors during and after pregnancy. Hereditarians have in return criticized the argued exceptions. They argue that racial differences in brain size can be observed as early as the 9th week of intrauterine life. Nutrition as an explanation is argued to be unlikely, at least in the US, since Blacks in one US study with 40,000 participants were found to have smaller cranial volumes at birth despite being taller and heavier at birth.[2]

Default hypothesis

"Heritability" refers to the proportion of variation of a trait that is due to genetic factors. Heritability of IQ as determined from twin studies is 50-80% in adults in the US. This applies both to the population as a whole and Blacks and Whites studied separately. Non-hereditarians have argued that these numbers are too high. Hereditarians countered that the critical studies were done on children, who are known to have lower heritability than adults, or contradicted by many more studies supporting the high heritability figures. High within race heritability is not definitive evidence that the measured IQ gap between Blacks and Whites is 50-80% genetic. But hereditarians have argued that this makes a genetic explanation the "default hypothesis".[3][2]

Eye color

Joanna Rowe, professor emeritus at the University of Louisville in Kentucky, conducted tests and research that found that people with light-colored eyes are generally more intelligent than those with dark-colored eyes. The results found that people with blue eyes were more likely to be strategic thinkers and perform better at activities that require self-pacing and planning.[29][30]

Future evidence

Direct genetic evidence

Direct genetic evidence basically requires two things. One is knowledge about how genes are distributed in different races. This is being rapidly achieved by continued technological developments which have dramatically lowered the costs for analyzing a person's DNA. Several science projects have already completed analyzing or are in the process of analyzing the DNA of persons from different populations worldwide. One example is the 1000 Genomes Project which is analyzing the DNA of 2600 people from 26 different populations worldwide. 1700 had been completed as of March, 2012 and made publicly available.[31]

The other thing required is knowledge about which genes influence intelligence. One suggestion made in 2011 at the start of research project regarding this is that "within the next 5-10 years we will identify genes which account for a significant fraction of total IQ variation."[32] As data regarding racial gene differences and data regarding which genes affect IQ increasingly accumulate in the future, so will the evidence for or against a genetic explanation for the racial IQ differences.

Simply matching genes to IQ doesn't control for appearance genes and therefore supposed social discrimination which is why studies promoted on Metapedia such as this,[33] and this[34] which was not are invalid. See Racial admixture as a future solution for a method of circumventing this problem.

However, establishing genes have brain function and not appearance function, as well as being associated with IQ, would constitute a strong argument.

Davide Piffer has taken genes found to influence IQ in Whites (suggesting they are not racial appearance genes as "discrimination theory" would require) and found that they predict IQs in all races as would be expected by genetic theory.[35] This was done in 2015 when only 9 genes had been reliably identified, and a much more comprehensive study can be expected.

Evolutionary explanations for racial differences

Several evolutionary explanations for the racial and national differences have been proposed. Living in a cold climate has been argued to be cognitively challenging. This is argued to be supported by high correlations between country IQ and colder average temperature, higher latitude, and lighter skin color.[36]

New genetic mutations, which could include ones causing higher IQ, would be more likely to arise in large populations. This can be combined with the cold temperature theory. This would explain why Arctic People who live in very cold areas, but only as small populations, did not evolve a very high IQ. Europeans and East Asian who had large populations and lived in relatively cold areas evolved a higher IQ.[15]

Another theory is that living in more evolutionary novel environments in general would have favored higher intelligence.[36]

J. Philippe Rushton in his book Race, Evolution and Behavior applied r/K selection theory to human races and examined many different variables including intelligence.

Around the Later Stone Age (around 30,000 BC) Subsaharan Africans had a significantly higher cranial capacity (brain size) than they do today. This indicates that in the past, these populations were more intelligent, but devolved to a lower intelligence.[37]

Significance of racial IQ differences

A book tutorial on Microsoft office has essential (the most basic course) for black people, introductory for white people, and advanced for east asian people. This is considered racist because it follows the IQ differences in race and intelligence. If it was in any other order, it would not be considered racist.

The importance of IQ may be attacked which would make IQ differences unimportant. The America Psychological Association's report "Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns" rejected this argument and stated that IQ predicts several important life outcomes and achievements. This is also why IQ tests and closely correlated tests are used widely in many educational and occupational settings.[5]

A significant part of the debate following The Bell Curve was regarding how important the IQ group differences were for the future achievements of the groups in the US. The book argued for the strong importance of IQ for numerous factors such as future educational achievements, employment, income, divorce rates, and crime.

The book Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond, written as one response to the Bell Curve, argued that geographical differences caused differences in available resources which caused some groups to get a head start which explains today's differences in achievement between different parts of the world. The book The Geography of Thought further argued that some of these regional differences shaped lasting cultural traits which influenced achievements, such as the collectivism required by East Asian rice irrigation, compared with the individualism of ancient Greek herding, maritime mercantilism, and money crops wine and olive oil (pp. 34-35). Diamond, however, states that the populations in question separated a long time ago and he states that they faced different environments thereafter. These facts have been argued to virtually guarantee that the populations diverged genetically. Rushton notes, "It seems incredible that, as an evolutionary biologist, Diamond seems unaware that it is different environments that cause, via natural selection, biological differences among populations."[38] Also, Diamond's argument does not explain why the different races in the same country achieve differently.

Lynn in the 2008 book The Global Bell Curve, named after The Bell Curve, argued that the same racial hierarchies exist in all countries that have several races with the different races differing similarly regardless of country regarding variables such as crime, income, school results, education, etc. It does not matter if some groups were very poor when they arrived to a new country. After a while the same consistent racial hierarchies as elsewhere are established.

Numerous peer-reviewed articles by many different researchers have found that the average country IQ has many important associations and consequences. The differences in average IQ have been argued to largely reflect racial IQ differences. Similar relationships have been found between the average IQ of US states/counties and other variables. See countries and intelligence.

Lynn has also argued that East Asians, despite having slightly higher average IQ, have produced much less creative discoveries and innovations in the arts and sciences than Europeans. One possibly explanation is that East Asians have lower average creativity than Europeans. Lynn argues that this is supported by Northeast Asians scoring lower on the personality trait openness to experience.[39] Another way to put it is that Europeans have more intelligence in what's called right-brained intelligence while mongoloids have it more in left-brained intelligence. The idea of lateralization of brain function is that the left side is about types of things such as logical thinking, analysis, and accuracy while the right side is about things such as aesthetics, images, and creativity. IQ tests generally are more focused on left-brained mental activity than right.

Exceptions

Racial intelligence differences are averages and there are always cases of individuals having intelligence much higher or much lower than their average race. For example, Isaac Newton and Nikolai Tesla had intelligences far higher than the average white person and thus were not able to find a mate and never bore children.

In a traditional Subsaharan African society before white people came, a very intelligent black person in Subsaharan Africa would have trouble fitting in. However, in a white society, a very intelligent black person instead of having difficulties, finds it easy to fit in and does well in white society.

There have even been black people who see through some of the brainwashing of the mass media, for instance Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr. complained on Instagram, “Shout out to Akon ! He is about to supply 600 million africans with solar power. Im really upset that this isnt major news but that science project bruce jenner is #Society”.[40]

See also

References

  1. Miele, Frank (2002). Intelligence, Race, and Genetics: Conversations with Arthur R. Jensen. Oxford: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-4274-0
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 J. Philippe Rushton and Arthur R. Jensen. Race and IQ: A Theory-Based Review of the Research in Richard Nisbett’s Intelligence and How to Get It. The Open Psychology Journal, 2010, 3, 9-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874350101003010009 http://www.charlesdarwinresearch.org/2010%20Review%20of%20Nisbett.pdf
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Rushton, J. Philippe; Jensen, Arthur R. Thirty years of research on race differences in cognitive ability. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Vol 11(2), Jun 2005, 235-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.235 http://psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/PPPL1.pdf
  4. Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate, 2002, Viking Penguin, Chapter 18 Gender
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Neisser, Ulric; Boodoo, Gwyneth; Bouchard Jr., Thomas J.; Boykin, A. Wade; Brody, Nathan; Ceci, Stephen J.; Halpern, Diane F.; Loehlin, John C.; Perloff, Robert; Sternberg, Robert J.; Urbina, Susana. Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns. American Psychologist, Vol 51(2), Feb 1996, 77-101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.51.2.77
  6. Linda S. Gottfredson, Mainstream science on intelligence: An editorial with 52 signatories, history, and bibliography, Intelligence, Volume 24, Issue 1, January–February 1997, Pages 13-23, ISSN 0160-2896, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896(97)90011-8.
  7. Roth, P. L., Bevier, C. A., Bobko, P., Switzer, F. S., III, & Tyler, P. (2001). Ethnic group differences in cognitive ability in employment and educational settings: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 54, 297–330. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2001.tb00094.x
  8. 8.0 8.1 J. Philippe Rushton, Arthur R. Jensen, The rise and fall of the Flynn Effect as a reason to expect a narrowing of the Black–White IQ gap, Intelligence, Volume 38, Issue 2, March–April 2010, Pages 213-219, ISSN 0160-2896, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2009.12.002 http://www.psychology.uwo.ca/faculty/rushtonpdfs/2010%20Editorial%20for%20Intelligence.pdf
  9. General mental ability in South Asians: Data from three Roma (Gypsy) communities in Serbia, J. Philippe Rushtona, Jelena ?vorovi?b and Trudy Ann Bons, Intelligence, Volume 35, Issue 1, January–February 2007, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2006.09.002
  10. Kvasnicová, M. – Puskailerová, D. – Csomóová, E. – Hlavá?ová, G. – Hor?áková, V. – Kohút, V. – Žabková, V.: Geneticky podmienená mentálna retardácia v okrese Banská Bystrica. ?s. pediatrie, ?. 1, 1992. s. 25 – 28.
  11. Mark Snyderman and Stanley Rothman. Survey of Expert Opinion on Intelligence and Aptitude Testing. February 1987. Vol 42. No 2. 137-144. American Psychologist.
  12. Mark Snyderman and Stanley Rothman. The IQ Controversy, the Media and Public Policy. 1988. Transaction Books.
  13. Andrea Pitzer. Controversial comments taint Watson's legacy. USA Today November 21, 2007. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=3895028&page=1#.UEvH5I3ZA-E
  14. Helsingin Sanomat - Comments in interview could bring charges of inciting racism against PM Vanhanen's father.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Richard Lynn. Race Differences in Intelligence. 2008. Washington Summit Publishers.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Socioeconomic status
  17. Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. "On interpreting stereotype threat as accounting for African American-White differences on cognitive tests". American Psychologist, Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7
  18. International Society for Intelligence Research. December 17-19 2009. Program 10th Annual Conference. Stereotype threat and the cognitive test performance of African Americans. Jelte M. Wicherts & Cor de Haan. http://www.isironline.org/meeting/pdfs/old/program2009.pdf
  19. The Stereotype Threat scientific scandal. January 16, 2010. Steve Sailer. http://isteve.blogspot.se/2010/01/stereotype-threat-scientific-scandal.html
  20. Suzanne Model. The Secret of West Indian Success. Volume 45, Number 6 (2008), 544-548, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12115-008-9149-6
  21. 21.0 21.1 Jonathan Crane and Mallory Barg. Do Early Childhood Intervention Programs Really Work? Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy. April 2003. http://www.evidencebasedprograms.org/static/pdfs/Do%20Early%20Intervention%20Programs%20Really%20Work7.pdf
  22. Bacharach V.R. & Baumeister, A.A. (2000). Early generic educational intervention has no effect on intelligence and does not prevent mental retardation: The Infant Health and Development Program. Intelligence, 28(3), 161-192. (Sep 2000) http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/asu/f/Bacharach_V_2000_Early_Generic_Educational_Intervention.pdf
  23. "The Genetic Hypothesis": It Was Not Tested but It Could Have Been, Reed, T. E., American Psychologist, 1997, vol 52; Number 1, pages 77-78. http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=buy.optionToBuy&id=1997-02239-020
  24. Tailce K. M. Leite et al., 2011, Genomic Ancestry, Self-Reported “Color” and Quantitative Measures of Skin Pigmentation in Brazilian Admixed Siblings
  25. http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/?p=5974
  26. https://gigascience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-217X-3-10
  27. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/610339/dna-tests-for-iq-are-coming-but-it-might-not-be-smart-to-take-one/
  28. https://www.nature.com/articles/nrg.2017.104
  29. Why blue-eyed boys (and girls) are so brilliant By BEN CLERKIN 20 August 2007
  30. http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/08/21/study-blue-eyed-people-smarter-than-brown-eyed/
  31. Amazon Web Services, NIH: 1000 Genomes Project now publicly available. March 29, 2012. Zdnet. http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/amazon-web-services-nih-1000-genomes-project-now-publically-available/72670
  32. Steve Hsu. @Google: Genetics and Intelligence. Wednesday, August 17, 2011. http://infoproc.blogspot.se/2011/08/google-genetics-and-intelligence.html
  33. Genetics, IQ, and Convergence. January 15, 2015. The Unz Review. http://www.unz.com/akarlin/genetics-iq-and-convergence/
  34. Genome-wide association studies establish that human intelligence is highly heritable and polygenic http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3182557/
  35. A review of intelligence GWAS hits: Their relationship to country IQ and the issue of spatial autocorrelation, Davide Piffer, http://emilkirkegaard.dk/en/wp-content/uploads/PifferIntelligence2015.pdf
  36. 36.0 36.1 Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., National IQs: A review of their educational, cognitive, economic, political, demographic, sociological, epidemiological, geographic and climatic correlates, Intelligence (2012), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2011.11.004
  37. [http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/110503823/abstract Henneberg, M. and Steyn, M. (May 27, 2005, Online). Trends in cranial capacity and cranial index in Subsaharan Africa during the Holocene. American Journal of Human Biology, 5(4):473-479.
  38. Rushton, J. P. (1999). [Book Review of J. Diamond: Guns, germs and steel. New York: W.W. Norton, 1997]. Population and Environment, 21, 99-107, http://www.charlesdarwinresearch.org/1999%20Rushton%20review%20of%20Guns%20Germs%20&%20Steel.pdf
  39. Richard Lynn, Race Differences in Intelligence, Creativity and Creative Achievement, Richard Lynn, Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Spring 2008) pp. 299-309, http://www.mankindquarterly.org/spring2008_lynn.html
  40. http://www.dailystormer.com/is-snoop-doggy-dogg-the-only-civilized-man-left-in-america/

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