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Pope Sergius I

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Sergius I
Papacy began 15 December 687
Papacy ended 8 September 701
Predecessor Conon
Successor John VI
Personal details
Birth name ???
Born 650
Palermo, Sicily, Byzantine Empire
Died 8 September 701(701-09-08)
???
Other Popes named Sergius

Pope Saint Sergius I (c. 650 – 8 September 701) was pope from 687 to 701. Selected to end a schism between Antipope Paschal and Antipope Theodore, Sergius I ended the last disputed sede vacante of the Byzantine Papacy.

His papacy was dominated by his response to the Quinisext Council, whose canons he refused to accept. As a result of the dispute, the Byzantine Emperor Justinian II ordered Sergius I's abduction (as his predecessor Constans II had done with Pope Martin I), but with the assistance of the exarch of Ravenna, Sergius I was able to avoid trial in Constantinople.

Early life

Sergius I came from an Antiochene Syrian family which had settled at Palermo in Sicily. Sergius left Sicily and arrived in Rome during the pontificate of Pope Adeodatus II.[1] A fellow Sicilian, Pope Leo II, ordained him cardinal-priest of Santa Susanna on 27 June 683, and he rose through the ranks of the clergy.[1][2] He remained cardinal-priest of S. Susanna until his selection as pope.[1]

Election

Sergius I owed his election as Pope Conon's successor to skillful intrigues against Antipope Paschal and Antipope Theodore, the other candidates. The two armed factions entered into open combat before Sergius I was chosen by a group of judges, soldiers, clergy, and citizens.[3] He was brought to the Palatine imperial palace and then the Lateran.[3] The "numerical superiority" of this new faction forced Theodore from the patriarchium, whereafter he acknowledged Sergius I as pope.[3]

Paschal remained unconvinced, and while pretending to accept Sergius, sent messengers to the exarch of Ravenna John Platyn promising gold in exchange for military support.[3] The exarch arrived, demanded the gold, and looted Old St. Peter's Basilica, but departed after Sergius I's consecration.[3] Paschal was eventually confined to a monastery on charges of witchcraft.[3]

Sergius I was consecrated on 15 December 687, ending the last disputed sede vacante of the Byzantine Papacy.[4] "After the deaths of some pontiffs, Osporco, a Roman, succeeded to the papacy; but on account of his unseemly appellation, he took the name of Sergius, and this was the origin of that change of names which the popes adopt upon their election to the pontificate." [5]

Papacy (687–701)

On 10 April 689, Sergius I baptised King Caedwalla of Wessex in Rome. He also ordained Saint Willibrord as bishop of the Frisians, and the Liber Pontificalis states he also ordained Berhtwald as Archbishop of Canterbury.

Sergius founded the diaconie of S. Maria in Via Lata on the Corso from the Porta Flaminia to Capitoline Hill, encompassing a quarter of the city which developed in the eighth century.[6] He also "restored and embellished" the Eastern church of SS. Cosmas and Damian.[6]

Response to the Quinisext Council

Sergius I did not attend the Quinisext Council of 692, but sent legates (including his apocrisiarius and suffragan Basil, the Bishop of Gortyna in Crete), who ended up subscribing to the canons as "holding the place of the entire synod of the Holy Roman Church".[7] Sergius I himself rejected certain canons of the Council, although he continued to support political unity with Constantinople.[8] It is unknown exactly which canons Sergius I objected to, but he declared that he would "rather die than consent to erroneous novelties".[8] Sergius I's objections, however, did not extend to the anathemization of his predecessor, Pope Honorius I, who at the time was also condemned in Western formulas.[8] The canon which declared Constantinople equal in privileges but second in honor to Rome was also probably not the point of contention as it differed little from the pronouncements of earlier councils.[8]

However, the Quinisext Council did approve all eighty-five of the Apostolic Canons, while Sergius I would only have supported the first fifty.[8] The bulk of the resistance probably stemmed from varying doctrines and practices between east and west; for example, Roman deacons were prohibited from living with their wives after ordination, Roman priests were prohibited from having married twice prior to ordination, and Roman Christians were prohibited from fasting on the Saturdays of Great Lent and allowed to consume animal blood.[8] These and other practices differed from the Trullan canons.[8]

In a symbolically important step, Sergius I declared support for the chant "Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us" at the breaking of the Host during Mass, and restored the damaged facade mosaic in St. Peter's atrium that depicted the Worship of the Lamb; the depiction of Christ as lamb had been prohibited by the Council.[1] The Agnus Dei would have been chanted in both Greek and Latin during this period, in the same manner as the other liturgical changes of Sergius I.[9] Sergius I himself composed a litany in Greek (extant in the Athelstan Psalter to be recited on the feast of all saints.[10]

Enraged, Emperor Justinian II dispatched his magistrianus, also named Sergius, to Rome to arrest bishop John of Portus, the chief papal legate to the Third Council of Constantinople and Boniface, the papal counselor.[1] The two high-ranking officials were brought to Constantinople as a warning to the pope.[1] Eventually, Justinian II ordered Sergius I's arrest and abduction to Constantinople by his notoriously violent bodyguard protospatharios Zacharias.[1] However, the militia of the exarch of Ravenna and the Duchy of Pentapolis frustrated the attempt.[11] Zacharias nearly lost his own life in an attempt to arrest Sergius I.[12] Rather than seizing upon the anti-Byzantine sentiment, Sergius I did his best to quell the uprising.[11]

Death

Sergius died on September 8, 701. He was succeeded by John VI.

Notes

Papal styles of
Pope Sergius I
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Saint
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 223.
  2. Horace Mann: The lives of the popes. Vol. I pt. 2, London 1903, p. 80
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 216.
  4. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 217.
  5. Machiavelli, Nicolo. History of Florence and Italy. Book 1, Chapter III, Kindle ed.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 210.
  7. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 220.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 222.
  9. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 250.
  10. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 254, 280n94.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Ekonomou, 2007, p. 224.
  12. Ekonomou, 2007, p. 44.

References

  • Ekonomou, Andrew J. 2007. Byzantine Rome and the Greek Popes: Eastern influences on Rome and the papacy from Gregory the Great to Zacharias, A.D. 590–752. Lexington Books.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Conon
Pope
687–701
Succeeded by
John VI