UK arrested Tommy Robinson for reporting child-rape gangs that the government caters to. The UK banned reporting of his arrest, denied him a lawyer, and is trying to have him assassinated in prison. Regardless of how you feel about his views, this is a totalitarian government.
Tommy Robinson isn't the first to that the UK has jailed after a secret trial. Melanie Shaw tried to expose child abuse in a Nottinghamshire kids home -- it wasn't foreigners doing the molesting, but many members of the UK's parliament. The government kidnapped her child and permanently took it away. Police from 3 forces have treated her like a terrorist and themselves broken the law. Police even constantly come by to rob her phone and money. She was tried in a case so secret the court staff had no knowledge of it. Her lawyer, like Tommy's, wasn't present. She has been held for over 2 years in Peterborough Prison. read, read
Pope Nicholas IV
|Papacy began||22 February 1288|
|Papacy ended||4 April 1292|
|Birth name||Girolamo Masci|
30 September 1227|
Lisciano, Marche, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
4 April 1292 (aged 64)|
Rome, Papal States
|Other Popes named Nicholas|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Nicholas IV
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Nicholas IV (30 September 1227 – 4 April 1292), born Girolamo Masci, was Pope from 22 February 1288 until his death. Originally a Franciscan friar, he had been legate to the Greeks under Pope Gregory X in 1272, succeeded Bonaventure as Minister General of his religious order in 1274, and was made Cardinal Priest of Santa Prassede and Latin Patriarch of Constantinople by Pope Nicholas III, Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina by Pope Martin IV. He succeeded Pope Honorius IV in February 1288 at the end of a papal election that took ten months to conclude.
Masci was born at Lisciano, near Ascoli Piceno. He was a pious, peace-loving friar with no ambition save for the Church, the crusades and the extirpation of heresy. He steered a middle course between the factions at Rome and sought a settlement of the Sicilian question. In May 1289 he crowned King Charles II of Naples and Sicily after the latter had expressly recognized papal suzerainty, and in February 1291 concluded a treaty with Kings Alfonso III of Aragon and Philip IV of France looking toward the expulsion of James II of Aragon from Sicily. The loss of Acre in 1291 stirred Nicholas IV to renewed enthusiasm for a crusade. He sent missionaries, among them the celebrated Franciscan John of Monte Corvino, to labour among the Bulgarians, Ethiopians, Mongols, Tatars and Chinese.
Nicholas IV issued an important constitution on 18 July 1289, which granted to the cardinals one-half of all income accruing to the Holy See and a share in the financial management, thereby paving the way for that independence of the College of Cardinals which, in the following century, was to be of detriment to the papacy.
The 1291–92 Taxatio he initiated, a detailed valuation for ecclesiastical taxation of English and Welsh parish churches and prebends, remains an important source document for the mediaeval period. An edition was reprinted by the Record Commission in 1802 as Taxatio Ecclesiastica Angliae et Walliae Auctoritate.
- The Taxatio Project, Humanities Research Institute, University of Sheffield
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.
|Catholic Church titles|
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292
| Succeeded by|