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Normans

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The Normans were a people from medieval northern France, deriving to a large extent their aristocratic origins from Scandinavia (the name is adapted from the name "Northmen" or "Norsemen"). They played a major political, military and cultural role in the northern and Mediterranean parts of medieval Europe and the Near East, eg. the colonisation (and naming) of Normandy, the "Norman Conquest" of England, the establishment of states in Sicily and southern Italy, and the Crusades.

In fact, by the time of the invasion of England, most Normans were derived from the indigenous populations of eastern Brittany and western Flanders, but their lords retained a memory of their own Viking origins. They began to occupy the northern area of France now known as Normandy in the latter half of the 9th century. In 911, Charles the Simple, king of France, granted the invaders the small lower Seine area, which expanded over time to become the Duchy of Normandy. The invaders were under the leadership of Rollo, who swore allegiance to Charles the Simple.

The Norman people adopted Christianity and the Gallo-Romance language and created a new cultural identity separate from that of their Scandinavian forebears and French neighbors. Norman culture, like that of many other migrant communities, was particularly enterprising and adaptable. For a time, it led them to occupy widely dispersed territories throughout Europe.

The Normans should not be confused with the Northmen, that is, the Vikings from the North. In Russian historiography, however, the term "Norman", is often used for the Varangians, as for example in the term "Normanist theory". In French historiography, too, the term is often applied to the various Viking groups which raided France in the ninth century before settling down to found Normandy.

Connections to the Jews

Normans are responsible for introducing the Jews to the British Isles. Before the year 1070, when William the Conquerer introduced some Jews from Normandy and France with him there had been no prior record of a Jewish presence in the British Isles, even in Roman times. After the Normans conquered the Anglo-Saxon English, the Jewish presence spread. It is unclear how they infiltrated Scotland, but it appears to have been following the Norman inspired Davidian Revolution, where they are first mentioned in 1190. In Ireland too, there had been no Jewish Problem until the coming of the Norman baronial invaders. A group of five Jews had tried to infiltrate from Normandy in 1079, but the Gaelic High King of Ireland, Turlough O'Brien forbade them to enter and sent them back over the sea.

On Crusade

The legendary religious zeal of the Normans was exercised in religious wars long before the First Crusade carved out a Norman principality in Antioch. They were major foreign participants in the Reconquista in Iberia. In 1018, Roger de Tosny travelled to the Iberian Peninsula to carve out a state for himself from Moorish lands, but failed. In 1064, during the War of Barbastro, William of Montreuil led the papal army and took a huge booty.

In 1096, Crusaders passing by the siege of Amalfi were joined by Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew Tancred with an army of Italo-Normans. Bohemond was the de facto leader of the Crusade during its passage through Asia Minor. After the successful Siege of Antioch in 1097, Bohemond began carving out an independent principality around that city. Tancred was instrumental in the conquest of Jerusalem and he worked for the expansion of the Crusader kingdom in Transjordan and the region of Galilee.[citation needed]

Aristocracy in the British Isles

The Norman aristocracy in the British Isles played a significant role in Great Britain and Ireland after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The Normans conquered England and the various Brythonic kingdoms of Wales outright, as well as many of the Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland. The process in Scotland was somewhat different, as they intermarried with the aristocracy and eventually came to the throne that way. While generally Franco-Norman in culture, some of the new aristocracy were Breton, French (Franks) or Flemish in ancestry.

With the advent of Protestantism and a cultural shift back to Northern Europe away from France following the Revolution of 1688, there was more of an influence of Dutch and North Germans into the aristocracy, although the older Norman-originated aristocracy continued to exist, they no longer sat on the throne itself. The House of Normandy, House of Plantagenet, House of Blois, House of Bruce, House of Balliol and House of Stuart were kings of either England or Scotland at some point.

Monarchs

Arms House Title Origin Reign Details
Normandy.png
Normandy King of England Normans 1066–1141 They were also Dukes of Normandy. An illegitimate line called itself the House of Clare in England and Ireland.
Blois.png
Blois King of England French 1135–1154 Cuturally they were Franco-Norman. Only one king, they were also Counts of Blois.
England COA.png
Plantagenet King of England
King of France
Lord of Ireland
Prince of Wales
French 1154–1485 Originally from Anjou they also competed with the Capetians for the French crown, some of their relatives were Kings of Jerusalem. An illegitimate line continues to exist in the peerage of England as the Dukes of Beaufort.
Balliol COA.png
Balliol King of Scotland French 1292–1356 Originally from Picardy, they provided one completely accepted king and another who claimed to be king.
Bruce COA.png
Bruce King of Scotland
King of Ireland
Normans 1306–1371 They still exist in the peerage of Scotland as Earl of Elgin and several lesser titles. Edward Bruce claimed to be king of Ireland, but many rejected this.
Stuart COA.png
Stuart King of Scotland
King of England
King of Ireland
King of Great Britain
Bretons 1371–1707 Normanised-Bretons in origin.

Kingdom of England

Arms House Premier title Origin Titled period Details
Spencer.png
Spencer Duke of Marlborough
Earl Spencer
Earl of Winchester
Baron le Despencer
Normans 1264–present Invaded from Normandy in the form of their ancestor Hugh I de Berges around 1066. Originally known as le Despencer. Provided arch-criminal Winston Spencer-Churchill and Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales.

Kingdom of Scotland

Arms House Premier title Origin Titled period Details
Sutherland.png
Sutherland Earl of Sutherland Flemish 1160–present Eloped following the Davidian Revolution through person of Freskin. Co-tribesmen of the same paternal line include the Murray and Douglas families.

Lordship & Kingdom of Ireland

Arms House Premier title Origin Titled period Details
De Clare.png
de Clare Lord of Leinster Normans 1169–1318 Strongbow arrived from Wales and married into the MacMurrough dynasty, claiming Leinster for a time. Descended from illegitimate line of Dukes of Normandy. Another branch fought with the O'Brien dynasty for Thomond and lost.
FitzGerald.png
FitzGerald Duke of Leinster Normans 1169–present Arrived from Wales with Strongbow and were granted land in Leinster. Another branch fought with the MacCarthy dynasty for Desmond. Some became Gaelicised for a time and were involved in the Desmond Rebellions during Tudor times.
Burke.png
Burke Lord of Connaught French 1185–present Claimed questionable descent from Counts of Rethel and Baldwin II of Jerusalem.
Hamilton.png
Hamilton Duke of Abercorn Normans 1603–present Became involved in Ireland during 17th century after moving from Scotland; where family is also prominent. Norman ancestors were allies of Robert the Bruce. Their relatives purchased land from the O'Neill dynasty of Ulster.
Joel Lynch.png
de Lynch Lynch-Blosse baronets Normans 1603–present One of the fourteen merchant Tribes of Galway, who invaded during Middle Ages. Stole land from the Gaelic O'Heyne dynasty. Include amongst descendents Che Guevara.

Quotes

See also

External links

Part of this article consists of modified text from Metapedia (which sadly became a Zionist shill), page http:en.metapedia.org/wiki/Normans and/or Wikipedia (is liberal-bolshevistic), page http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normans, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.