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Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. Sumer in southern Mesopotamia is commonly regarded as the world's earliest civilization. Cities in Mesopotamia later served as capitals of the Akkadian, Babylonian and Abbasid empires. At other times, the region was ruled by foreign powers, notably the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Rashidun, Umayyad and Ottoman empires and kings.


Main article: Timeline of Ancient Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian history extends from the emergence of Urban societies in Southern Iraq in the 4th millennium BC to the arrival of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC (which is seen as the hallmark of the Hellenization of the Near East, therefore supposedly marking the "end" of Mesopotamia). Mesopotamia housed some of the world's most ancient states with highly developed social complexity. The region was famous as one of the four riverine civilizations where writing was first invented, along with the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley in the Indian Subcontinent and Yellow River valley in China.

Mesopotamia housed historically important cities such as Uruk, Nippur, Nineveh, and Babylon as well as major territorial states such as the Akkadian kingdom, Third Dynasty of Ur, and Assyrian empire. Some of the important historical Mesopotamian leaders were Ur-Nammu (king of Ur), Sargon (who established the Akkadian Kingdom), Hammurabi (who established the Old Babylonian state), and Tiglath-Pileser I (who established the Assyrian Empire).

Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, page http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesopotamia, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.