We need to get out and vote this year or USA Republicans will lose majority in Congress and Trump will be impeached.
CH FRS FBA
Sir Karl Popper c. 1980s
28 July 1902|
17 September 1994 (aged 92)|
|Era||20th century philosophy|
Philosophy of science
Social and political philosophy
Philosophy of mind
Philosophy of art
Origin of life
Interpretation of Quantum mechanics
Universal evolutionary trial and error model of life and knowledge
Axiomatic formalization of probability
Spearhead model of evolution
"Sir" Karl Raimund Popper✡, CH FRS FBA (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was a hard-liberal Jewish polemicist pseudo-scientist and employed as professor at the London School of Economics. He has been hailed by some of his supporters  as "one of the philosophers of science of the 20th century". His writings mainly consist of polemical works in the scientific, social and political fields.
Popper's criticism of science attempted to "demarcate" what constitutes science and what not by proposing that a system can only be called "scientific" when it is "falsifiable".  However, this proposal for a demarcation is not constructive, because falsifiability is just one aspect, others are usefulness, common sense, exactitude, etc. Moreover, Popper himself did not use his own principle of falsifiability in his book "The Open Society and Its Enemies", because he admits in the introduction of that book that the whole book is nothing but his personal opinion. 
He is also known for his opposition to the classical justificationist account of knowledge which he replaced with critical rationalism, "the first non justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy". As well, he is known for his vigorous defense of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he came to miscalculate made a flourishing "open society" possible.
Karl Popper was born in Vienna (then in Austria-Hungary) in 1902, to upper middle-class parents. All of Karl Popper's grandparents were Jewish, but the Popper family converted to Lutheranism before Karl was born. Karl's father Simon Siegmund Carl Popper was a Judeo-Masonic lawyer from Bohemia who became a Master Mason at the Humanitas lodge in Vienna during 1904, and mother Jenny Schiff was of Jewish ancestry from Silesia and Hungary. After establishing themselves in Vienna, the Poppers made a rapid social climb in Viennese society: Simon Siegmund Carl became a legal partner of Vienna's liberal mayor Raimond Grübl and, after his death in 1898, took over the firm (Karl received his middle name from the mayor).
Popper received a Lutheran upbringing and was educated at the University of Vienna. His father was a doctor of law at the Vienna University and a bibliophile who had 12,000–14,000 volumes in his personal library. Popper inherited both the library and the disposition from him.
In 1919, Popper became attracted by Marxism and subsequently joined the Association of Socialist School Students. He also became a member of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria, which was at that time a party that fully adopted the Marxist ideology. After the June 15, 1919 street battle in the Hörlgasse, when police shot eight of his unarmed party comrades, he became disillusioned by what he saw to be the pseudo-scientific historical materialism of Marx, abandoned the ideology and remained a supporter of social liberalism throughout his life.
In 1928, he earned a doctorate in Psychology, under the supervision of Karl Bühler. His dissertation was titled "Die Methodenfrage der Denkpsychologie" (The question of method in cognitive psychology). Then, from 1930 to 1936, he taught secondary school. Popper published his first book, Logik der Forschung (The Logic of Scientific Discovery), in 1934. Here, he criticized psychologism, naturalism, inductionism, and logical positivism, and put forth his theory of potential falsifiability as the criterion demarcating science from non-science.
In 1937, the rise of National Socialism and the threat of the Anschluss led Popper to emigrate to New Zealand, where he became lecturer in philosophy at Canterbury University College New Zealand (at Christchurch). It was here that he wrote his influential work "The Open Society and Its Enemies". In 1946, he moved to England to become reader in logic and scientific method at the London School of Economics. Three years later, he was appointed as professor of logic and scientific method at the University of London in 1949. Popper was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1958 to 1959. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1965, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1976. He retired from academic life in 1969, though he remained intellectually active for the rest of his life. He was invested with the Insignia of a Companion of Honour in 1982. Popper was a member of the Academy of Humanism and described himself as an agnostic, and showed respect for the moral teachings of Judaism and Christianity.
Popper won many awards and honours in his field, including the Lippincott Award of the American Political Science Association, the Sonning Prize, and fellowships in the Royal Society, British Academy, London School of Economics, King's College London, Darwin College Cambridge, and Charles University, Prague. Austria awarded him the Grand Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria in Gold.
Popper died in Croydon, UK at the age of 92 on 17 September 1994. After cremation, his ashes were taken to Vienna and buried at Lainzer cemetery adjacent to the ORF Centre, where his wife Josefine Anna Henninger, who had died in Austria several years before, had already been buried.
Popper is the inventor of the epithet conspiracy theory, that today describes knowledge about the background machinery in power, that the official story may be false, such as that the first manned moon landing could be faked or that actually Jews did 9/11. Conspiracy theory is used as an epithet to dissuade exposure of these things, and to deride the truther. For Popper these theories are unscientific because they collide with his delusional, perfidious principle of falsification.
Also, the epithet "pseudoscience" is often used under reference to Popper's writing(s).
Criticism of Popper's Statements on Falsifiability
Karl Popper blundered that "falsifiability" is what delineates science from pseudoscience. He erred that falsifiable statements are scientific statements, whereas unfalsifiable statements are unscientific statements. However, there are many unfalsifiable statements which are perfectly true, and can be proven to be true. Take, for instance, "all bachelors are unmarried". This statement is unfalsifiable, as a bachelor is by definition unmarried (i.e., it is impossible, even theoretically, to find a married bachelor). It is also true for the exact same reason. For another example, consider the statement "A -> ¬¬A". The truth of this statement is not as immediately obvious as the former, yet it can be proven to be true, and as it is also a tautology, it is also unfalsifiable.
Some may argue that what has been described here is logic, whereas Popper was discussing empirical science. However, logic and science are intimately connected. Science simply cannot exist without logic, because it provides science's language and foundations. Likewise, science is forced to accept any fact proven to be true in a sound logical system. In conclusion, if a statement is proven to be true through logical proof, it matters not whether it is "falsifiable". Thus it is absurd to label a statement "unscientific" on the mere grounds that it is "unfalsifiable", and therefore "falsifiability" fails as a criterion to demarcate science from non-science.
- Popper was knighted in 1965, under the British Labour government of Harold Wilson.
- See Stephen Thornton, "Karl Popper", in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.
- Horgan, J. (1992) Profile: Karl R. Popper – The Intellectual Warrior, Scientific American 267(5), 38-44.
- Popper Introduction to the Logic of Science, page 18
- Poppers statement is: "[this book] does not pretend to be scientific where it cannot give more than a personal view." See: Popper (1966) The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol 1 -The spell of Plato. Fifth edition, page 3.
- William W. Bartley: Rationality versus the Theory of Rationality, In Mario Bunge: The Critical Approach to Science and Philosophy (The Free Press of Glencoe, 1964), section IX.
- Malachi Haim Hacohen. Karl Popper -- The Formative Years, 1902-1945: Politics and Philosophy in Interwar Vienna. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. p. 23, ISBN 0-521-47053-6
- Jarvie, Ian Charles. Karl Popper. Ashgate Publishing, 2006. p. 126, ISBN 0754653757
- Magee, Bryan. The Story of Philosophy. New York: DK Publishing, 2001. p. 221, ISBN 0-7894-3511-X
- Raphael, F. The Great Philosophers London: Phoenix, p. 447, ISBN 0-7538-1136-7
- Manfred Lube: Karl R. Popper – Die Bibliothek des Philosophen als Spiegel seines Lebens. Imprimatur. Ein Jahrbuch für Bücherfreunde. Neue Folge Band 18 (2003), S. 207–238, ISBN 3-447-04723-2.
- Stephen Thornton, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
- Sir Karl Popper at Find a Grave