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Joseph Goebbels with his children
|Reich Chancellor of Germany|
30 April 1945 – 1 May 1945
|Preceded by||Adolf Hitler|
|Succeeded by||Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk (acting)|
|Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda|
13 March 1933 – 30 April 1945
|President||Paul von Hindenburg (1933–1934)|
|Führer||Adolf Hitler (1934–45)|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Werner Naumann|
|Gauleiter of Berlin|
9 November 1926 – 1 May 1945
|Appointed by||Adolf Hitler|
|Preceded by||Ernst Schlange|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
Paul Joseph Goebbels|
29 October 1897
Rheydt, Prussia, Germany
1 May 1945 (aged 47)|
Berlin, National Socialist Germany
National Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP)|
|Spouse(s)||Magda Goebbels (née Ritschel) (m. 1931)|
|Religion||originally Roman Catholic|
Paul Joseph Goebbels (Pronounced Gerbells not Goh-bells! The oe in German is another way of writing ö, which is pronounced as er[ Also Paul in German is pronounced Pow-l and Joseph in German is pronounced Yoh-seff.) (29 October 1897 - 1 May 1945) was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in National Socialist Germany from 1933 to 1945. One of Adolf Hitler's close associates and most devoted followers, he was known for his skills in public speaking.
Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg in 1921. He joined the National Socialist German Worker's Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser in their northern branch. He was appointed as Gauleiter (district leader) for Berlin in 1926, where he began to take an interest in the use of propaganda to promote the party and its programme. After the National Socialist Seizure of Power in 1933, Goebbels's Propaganda Ministry quickly gained and exerted controlling supervision over the news media, arts, and information in Germany. He was particularly adept at using the relatively new media of radio and film for propaganda purposes. Topics for party propaganda included antisemitism, attacks on the Christian churches, and (after the start of the Second World War) attempting to shape morale.
Goebbels, along with Hitler and Göring, came to comprise the leadership ‘trinity’ of the early National Socialist party. As WWII progressed, Göring fell from grace. Goebbels has been argued to have eclipsed even Himmler in influence, becoming the de facto second-in-command (on non-security issues), and by 1943 to be virtually running the country while Hitler was running the war.
In 1943, Goebbels began to pressure Hitler to introduce measures that would produce "total war", including closing businesses not essential to the war effort, conscripting women into the labour force, and enlisting men in previously exempt occupations into the Wehrmacht. Hitler finally appointed him as Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War on 23 July 1944, whereby Goebbels undertook largely unsuccessful measures to increase the number of people available for armaments production and the Wehrmacht.
As the war drew to a close and National Socialist Germany faced defeat, Magda Goebbels and the Goebbels children joined him in Berlin. They moved into the underground Vorbunker, part of Hitler's underground bunker complex, on 22 April 1945. Hitler committed suicide on 30 April. In accordance with Hitler's will, Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor of Germany; he served one day in this post. The following day, Goebbels and his wife committed suicide, after poisoning their six children with cyanide.
Conventional and politically correct descriptions of Goebbels's life are easily found in numerous online sources. This article will instead describe some politically incorrect views on Goebbels.
- 1 Early Life
- 2 National Socialist Activist
- 3 Goebbels and propaganda
- 4 Goebbels and the Holocaust
- 5 Death
- 6 Works
- 7 See also
- 8 External links
Paul Joseph Goebbels was born in Rheydt, an industrial town south of Mönchengladbach (of which it is now part) on the edge of the Ruhr district. His family were Catholics of modest means, his father a factory clerk, his mother originally a farmhand. He had four siblings: Hans (1893–1949), Konrad (1895–1947), Elisabeth (1901–1915) and Maria (born 1910, later Maria Kimmich). Dr Goebbels was educated at a local grammar school, where he completed his Abitur (school leaving examination) in 1916. Beginning in childhood the Doctor also suffered a deformity of his right foot caused by an unsuccessful operation for the bacterial infection osteomyelitis, which some mistook for clubfoot. He wore a metal brace and special shoe to compensate for his shortened leg. As a result of these conditions, he was rejected for military service in World War I.
However, with a brilliant mind Dr Goebbels compensated for his physical limitation with great intellectual accomplishments. His parents expected Joseph to train as a priest, but he had his own ideas and studied literature and philosophy at universities in Bonn, Würzburg, Freiburg im Breisgau and Heidelberg. The Doctor's intelligence and political astuteness were generally acknowledged by teacher's Friedrich Gundolf and doctoral supervisor at Heidelberg Max Freiherr von Waldberg, even though they were Jews. His notes were always the best. The Doctor wrote his doctoral thesis on the 18th century romantic novelist Wilhelm von Schütz.
After completing his doctorate in 1921, Dr Goebbels sought a job as a journalist or dramaturge, but his applications were refused. Therefore he worked up to 1923 at the Dresdner Bank in Köln. This work did not satisfy him and he tried for several years to become a published author writing a novel, Michael, two verse plays, and quantities of romantic poetry. Many Marxist biographers claim these writings reveal the 'psychological damage’ his physical limitation had caused. Implying "The very name of the hero, Michael, to whom he gave many features, suggests self-identification: 'To be a soldier! To stand sentinel! One must be a soldier forever,' wrote Michael-Goebbels." Yet a far more simple and logical explanation is that the soldier figure is the ultimate representation of the patriot, a strong sentiment felt by many young Germans at that time. One must also point out that the English poet Byron ‘suffered’ a similar ailment and as Scottish novelist John Galt was to put this was merely an "innocent fault in his foot..."
Dr Goebbels was frustrated that his literary works were not recognised. His novel did not find a publisher until 1929 and his plays were never staged. However, it is interesting to note that a large part of the Doctor’s early life particularly the claim that he was something of a womaniser is based on supposed 'diaries' that he began in 1923 and continued for the rest of his life. Indeed it is highly likely that woman threw themselves at the Doctor. Apart from his remarkable agile mind he was an extremely attractive man. As Manvell and Fraenkel put it in their biography "his face was lean and oval, his nose pronounced...and his cheek bones high. He had a wide, volatile mouth, with a charming smile...dark brown eyes that responded readily to emotion, but could be penetrating in their (gaze). .. beautiful hands, lean, well-veined and mobile...". While it is true that between 1923 and 1945 Dr Joseph Goebbels produced a considerable quantity of documents on a daily basis, including notes and dictated material in both typed and handwritten formats. Many of these documents are incomplete due to lost or intentionally removed material. Moreover, the bulk of the surviving material consists of photocopies whose originals can no longer be located. Dr Goebbels himself can be identified as the author of a portion of these documents, but the greater part was written or collated by his employees. Using these materials, Dr Goebbels then composed a journal entry which could comprise up to 100 typed DINA4-pages per daily entry. As so many employees contributed to the journal, there are considerable variations in quality and numerous repetitions. The journals as a whole should therefore be considered a compilation rather than a 'diary'. As such considerable doubt must be cast on whether the propaganda minister ever actually wrote a diary. Whilst at face value the material collated in these so called 'diaries' do not depict the monster desired by Jewish Democracy but rather portray a genuine patriot during times of political upheaval, it is the Marxist biographical commentary that influences the reader. In this way this 'diary' is a cunning tool of the enemies of German National Socialism. It is also important to note that "From the Kaiserhof to the Reich Chancellery" by Dr Goebbels was published in Germany in 1933 for propaganda purposes. This was republished in 1938 in England as "My Part in Germany's Struggle". This was in diary form and did represent the day to day activities of a National Socialist activist caught up in the moment.
Dr Goebbels read avidly and formed his own political views. Major influences were Friedrich Nietzsche, Oswald Spengler and most importantly Houston Stewart Chamberlain, the British-born German writer who authored the book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) which was one of the standard works of the national side in Germany. Dr Goebbels spent the winter of 1919–20 in München, where he witnessed and admired the patriotic nationalist counter-offensive against the attempted Judenputch in Bavaria. His first political hero was Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley, the man who eliminated the Jewish communist terrorist Kurt Eisner? in München. (Hitler was in München at the same time and entered politics as a result of similar experiences.)
National Socialist Activist
Like others who were later prominent in the Third Reich, Dr Goebbels came into contact with the Party in 1923, during the campaign of resistance to the French occupation of the Ruhr. But Hitler’s imprisonment following the failed November 1923 "Munich Putsch" left the party temporarily leaderless, and when the 27-year-old Goebbels joined the party in late 1924 the most important influence on his political development was Gregor Strasser, who became organiser in northern Germany in March 1924. Strasser, took the "socialist" component of National Socialism far more seriously than did Hitler and other members of the Bavarian leadership of the party.
"National and socialist! What goes first, and what comes afterwards?" the Doctor asked rhetorically in a debate with Theodore Vahlen, Gauleiter (regional party head) of Pomerania, in the Rhineland party newspaper National-sozialistische Briefe (National-Socialist Letters), of which he was editor, in mid 1925. "With us in the west, there can be no doubt. First socialist redemption, then comes national liberation like a whirlwind… Hitler stands between both opinions, but he is on his way to coming over to us completely." Dr Goebbels, with his journalistic skills, thus soon became a key ally of Strasser in his struggle with the Bavarians over the party programme. The conflict was not, so they thought, with Hitler, but with his lieutenants, Rudolf Hess, Julius Streicher and Hermann Esser, who, they said, were mismanaging the party in Hitler’s absence. In 1925, Dr Goebbels published an open letter to "my friends of the left," urging unity between socialists and National socialists against the capitalists. "You and I," he wrote, "we are fighting one another although we are not really enemies."
It is important to note however, that the very term 'socialist' has been hijacked by the Jewish Marxist to mean something far different than originally intended. While many National Socialist of the west including Dr Goebbels were no doubt defined by a social conscience for his fellow man. Bolshevik socialism was defined by a poverty inducing internationalism.
In February 1926, Hitler, having finished working on Mein Kampf, made a sudden return to party affairs and soon disabused the northerners of any illusions about where he stood. He summoned about 60 gauleiter and other activists, including the Doctor, to a meeting at Bamberg, in Streicher’s gau of Franconia, where he gave a two-hour speech repudiating the political programme of the "socialist" wing of the party. For Hitler, the real enemy of the German people was always the Jews and recognising Dr Goebbels’s talents he brought him to Munichin April, sending his own car to meet him at the railway station, and gave him a long private audience. Hitler berated the Doctor over his support for the "socialist" line, but offered to "wipe the slate clean" if Dr Goebbels would now accept his leadership. Dr Goebbels capitulated completely, offering Hitler his total loyalty—a pledge which was clearly sincere, and which he adhered to until the end of his life. "I love him… He has thought through everything," Dr Goebbels wrote. "Such a sparkling mind can be my leader. I bow to the greater one, the political genius. Later he wrote: "Adolf Hitler, I love you because you are both great and simple at the same time. What one calls a genius."
Goebbels and propaganda
He was "Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda" but the word "propaganda" at this time had a somewhat different meaning than today as explained in the article on Propaganda.
Goebbels's is now depicted as a master of false propaganda and the Big Lie.
Another view is that "Goebbels was successful as a propagandist not because he was a master of the “Big Lie,” but rather as a result of his fidelity to facts and truth."
There remains the problem of Goebbels’ reputation. He wore the title of Big Liar (bestowed by Anglo-Saxon propaganda) and yet he never stopped battling for propaganda to be as accurate as possible. He preferred being cynical and brutal to being caught in a lie. He used to say: “Everybody must know what the situation is.” He was always the first to announce disastrous events or difficult situations, without hiding anything. The result was a general belief between 1939 and 1942 that German communiqués not only were more concise, clearer and less cluttered, but were more truthful than Allied communiqués (American and neutral opinion) – and, furthermore, that the Germans published all the news two or three days before the Allies. All this is so true that pinning the title of Big Liar on Goebbels must be considered quite a propaganda success.— French scholar Jacques Ellul.
See also Allied psychological warfare.
Goebbels and the Holocaust
Goebbels's chief secretary
Brunhilde Pomsel was the chief secretary of Goebbels with access to top-secret papers during the war. In 2016, shortly before her death, she stated that neither she nor her co-workers knew of the alleged mass exterminations.
Goebbels maintained a near-daily diary until his death. This amounted to 75,000 pages in its original version. It has been cited by both Holocaust revisionists and anti-revisionists as evidence.
The diary states that Goebbels had extensive knowledge of the German policy on Jews during the time period when genocidal killings allegedly occurred, such as from SS (SD) reports and from discussions with Hitler on the "Jewish Question" during this time period.
The typed pages were in Soviet possession before they later came into American possession. This has been argued to cast further doubt on the authenticity.
The contents of a document may in some places in the document have been interpreted incorrectly and may in other places have been fabricated/edited. This could occur if the editor/fabricator used an original document as a template and made relatively minor changes when creating the new false document but with these changes creating an overall misleading impression also regarding the parts which were not edited/fabricated. The motivations for only making relatively minor changes include that it is often very difficult and risky to forge a convincing completely new document while making relatively minor changes to an already existing document is much easier and quicker.
However, the rest of the discussion in this article will assume that all entries are authentic (but sometimes mistranslated or misinterpreted).
A 2010 revisionist examination by Thomas Dalton argued that "Goebbels’s diaries, like Hitler’s ‘table talk’ reflections, are not well known or citied, even among the so-called experts. I think we can now see why: these entries offer very little support for the orthodox view, and raise lots of troublesome issues that must be explained away—not the least of which is the fact that, if we are to believe the exterminationists, Goebbels systematically lied to himself or otherwise falsified his own private diary, for years, for the sake of some unknown future events. This is simply not credible. Nor is the possibility that he was unaware of the mass killing that was allegedly happening."
Revisionists have argued that some non-revisionists have cherry picked quotes, mistranslated some German words, and ignored context in order to give a misleading impression. Also ignored, it is argued, is that Goebbels in his diary wrote about removing, pushing out, or deporting Jews while making no clear reference to killings while the Holocaust is supposed to be ongoing.
Those citing the diary as Holocaust evidence often state that Goebbels wrote about Jews being "liquidated" (German: "liquidiert"). "Liquidated" is claimed to mean "exterminated".
See Meanings and translations of German words and Holocaust revisionism on this topic in general such as several German words argued to be incorrectly translated/interpreted as referring to "extermination" with the argued correct meaning being "removal" of Jews and/or "removal" of argued harmful Jewish influence.
Etymologically the German "liquidieren" and the English "liquidate" originate from the Latin liquidus ("liquid"). Various extended meanings originate from the sense of making something clear or to clarify. The word was applied by communists to ideological opponents in the sense of cleansing, purifying, or purging in the 1920s. This use by communists meant "removing", such as by excluding from an organization, and not necessarily killing. A similar word is "purge", etymologically also meaning to "make clear", and in an extended sense also meaning "removing" (such as from an organization), and not necessarily killing.
The English word "liquidate" has had extensive changing in meaning over time. The 1828 and 1913 Webster's dictionaries list no sense in which liquidate means "to kill" but several related to "make clear". In 2015 Merriam-Webster lists "to kill" as one sense of the word and "to make clear" is described as archaic usage.
Dalton has stated on the German word that "Nor at the time, in the 1940s, did the word necessarily mean murder. An article in the London Times had this to say: “The rest of the Jews in the General Government…would be liquidated, which means either transported eastward in cattle trucks to an unknown destination, or killed where they stood” (4 December 1942; p. 3). Holocaust survivor Thomas Buergenthal (2009: 49) writes of his experience in the Kielce ghetto: “The ghetto was being liquidated or, in the words bellowing out of the loudspeakers, Ausseidlung! Ausseidlung! (‘Evacuation! Evacuation!’).” And later he comments, “After the liquidation of the labor camp…” (p. 56). Clearly the word means, and meant, something other than killing."
Regarding the stated use of the word in the diary, in some cases this is argued to be mistranslations of German, in other cases Goebbels does talk about liquidating Jews in Europe but it is clear from other passages also using the word that liquidate does not necessarily mean killing.
Thus, on 19 March 1941, Goebbels stated that "Early flight to Posen. … Here, all sorts have been liquidated (liquidiert), above all the Jewish trash. This has to be. I explain the situation to Greiser\." This is dated before the alleged start of the Holocaust. Thus, liquidate here refers to the expulsions of the non-Germans such as Jews and Poles from Posen (Poznań) (which had been annexed by Germany) to the General Government. That such an expulsion of non-Germans from Posen to the General Government occurred is stated in non-Holocaust revisionist sources.
On 6 March 1942, Goebbels stated that "Anyway, I am of the opinion that the greater the number of Jews liquidated (liquidiert), the more consolidated will be the situation in Europe after this war. One must have no mistaken sentimentality about it. The Jews are Europe's misfortune; they must somehow be removed (beseitigt), otherwise we are in danger of being removed (beseitigt) by them." The entry the very next day, on March 7, 1942, unambiguously referred to deportations and not killings as the "final solution" to the "Jewish Question". The entry thus stated that "I read a detailed report from the SD and police regarding a final solution of the Jewish Question. Any final solution involves a tremendous number of new viewpoints. The Jewish Question must be solved within a pan-European frame. There are 11 million Jews still in Europe. They will have to be concentrated later, to begin with, in the East; possibly an island, such as Madagascar, can be assigned to them after the war. In any case there can be no peace in Europe until the last Jews are shut off from (ausgeschaltet) the continent."
The 30 May 1942 entry also included liquidate and discussed deportations. "one must liquidate (liquidieren) the Jewish danger, cost it what it will. [...] the Führer does not at all wish that the Jews should be evacuated (evakuiert) to Siberia. There, under the harshest living conditions, they would undoubtedly develop again a strong life-element. He would much prefer to resettle (aussiedeln) them in central Africa. There they would live in a climate that would certainly not make them strong and resistant. In any case, it is the Führer’s goal to make Western Europe completely Jew-free. Here they may no longer have their homeland."
27 March 1942 entry
The 27 March 1942 entry is very often quoted by supporters of the politically correct view on the Holocaust (although usually quoted only selectively, such as by often excluding the first sentence):
Beginning with Lublin, the Jews in the General Government are now being evacuated (abgeschoben) eastward. The procedure is a pretty barbaric one and not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews. On the whole it can be said that about 60 percent of them will have to be liquidated (liquidiert) whereas only about 40 percent can be used for forced labor.
The former Gauleiter of Vienna, who is to carry this measure through, is doing it with considerable circumspection and according to a method that does not attract too much attention. A judgment is being visited upon the Jews that, while barbaric, is fully deserved by them. The prophesy which the Führer made about them for having brought on a new World War is beginning to come true in a most terrible manner. One must not be sentimental in these matters. If we did not fight the Jews, they would destroy us (vernichten). It’s a life-and-death struggle between the Aryan race and the Jewish bacillus. No other government and no other regime would have the strength for such a global solution of this question. Here, too, the Führer is the undismayed champion of a radical solution necessitated by conditions, and therefore inexorable. Fortunately a whole series of possibilities presents itself for us in wartime that would be denied us in peacetime. We shall have to profit by this.
The ghettos that will be emptied in the cities of the General Government will now be refilled with Jews thrown out (ausgeschobenen) of the Reich. This process is to be repeated from time to time. There is nothing funny in it for the Jews, and the fact that Jewry’s representatives in England and America are today organizing and sponsoring the war against Germany must be paid for dearly by its representatives in Europe—and that’s only right.
Revisionists argue that the interpretation of it as describing extermination depends on the politically correct interpretation of words such as "liquidiert", "vernichten", and "solution". See the section on "Liquidate" in this article and Meanings and translations of German words and Holocaust revisionism.
Dalton has argued that entry shows that for Goebbels the word "vernichten is not mass murder—would the Jews really kill every German simply by remaining unopposed, and living amongst them? Of course not. But they could destroy the character and integrity of traditional German society."
Revisionists also argue that liquidiert in this entry refers to deportation further to the east of all Jews unable to work. Those able to work would do so as forced laborers. This is argued to be supported by a document from 17 March 1942 which describes sorting of Jews at the Belzec camp (see the entry on that date in the article on World War II statements argued to support Holocaust revisionism). Other documents are argued to show that there was no extermination of those deported. The phrase "not much will remain of the Jews" is argued to refer to an absence of Jews and their earlier economic, political, and social influence in western and central Europe.
Regarding "The prophesy which the Führer made", see Alleged statements by Hitler on the Holocaust: The 1939 Reichstag speech.
The often in politically correct quotes selectively excluded first sentence ("Beginning with Lublin, the Jews in the General Government are now being evacuated (abgeschoben) eastward.") with Lublin already being in the eastern part of the General Government, thus implying evacuation of the Jews out of Poland, is arguably inconsistent with the politically correct view that the Jews were killed or remained in Poland.
Many other entries in the diary both before and after this particular entry are argued to clearly refer to deportations and not killings. See World War II statements argued to support Holocaust revisionism regarding many detailed examples. See also the section ""Liquidate"" in this article on other entries using "liquidate" both before and after the 27 March 1942 entry.
13 December 1941 entry
Another diary entry frequently cited by anti-revisionists is the 13 December 1941 entry which is stated to refer to a Reich Chancellery meeting of 12 December 1941.
7 October 1943 entry
14 March 1945 entry
Dalton has stated on Goebbels’s diary that "I should note, by the way, that the German language does indeed have words for ‘killing’: morden, ermorden, töten, totschlagen, totschiessen. Goebbels had no shortage of alternatives if he wished to discuss literally killing the Jews. This is, after all, a personal and private diary. Consider his situation: Should the Germans win, he has nothing to fear. Should they lose, he must have known that his own death awaited, along with the ‘destruction’ of greater Germany—again, nothing to fear. Why hold back? So the reader might be wondering: Does Goebbels ever use such explicit terms? In fact he does: once. If I may temporarily leap ahead to one of his final entries, 14 March 1945, we read that certain soon-to-be-victorious Jews are calling for no mercy on the Germans—to which Goebbels replies, “Anyone in a position to do so should kill (totschlagen) these Jews like rats.” There we have it—an unambiguous call for murder. Except that it’s three years too late. One wonders, though, why, on the exterminationist thesis, Goebbels didn’t resort to such language much sooner."
Other diary entries
Several other diary entries are sometimes also discussed. See World War II statements argued to support Holocaust revisionism which cites many entries from the diary and the "External links" section.
Several non-diary statements by Goebbels are sometimes also discussed. See the "External links" section.
On 30 April, with the Russians advancing to within a few hundred metres of the bunker, Hitler dictated his last will and testament. Dr Goebbels was one of four witnesses to Hitler's last will and testament. Not long after completing it, Hitler shot himself. Of Hitler's death, the Doctor commented: "The heart of Germany has ceased to beat. The Führer is dead."
In his last will and testament, Hitler named no successor as Führer or leader of the Party. Instead, Hitler appointed Dr Goebbels Reich Chancellor, Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, who was at Flensburg near the Danish border, Reich President and Martin Bormann, Hitler's long-time chief of staff, Party Minister. Dr Goebbels knew that this was an empty title. Even if he was willing and able to escape Berlin and reach the north, it was unlikely that Dönitz, whose only concern was to negotiate a settlement with the western Allies that would save Germany from Soviet occupation, would want such a great man as Dr Joseph Goebbels heading his government.
As it was, Dr Goebbels had no intention of trying to escape. Voss later recounted: "When Goebbels learned that Hitler had committed suicide, he was very depressed and said: 'It is a great pity that such a man is not with us any longer. But there is nothing to be done. For us, everything is lost now and the only way left for us is the one which Hitler chose. I shall follow his example'."
Shortly afterwards he dictated a postscript to Hitler's testament:
"The Führer has given orders for me, in case of a breakdown of defense of the Capital of the Reich, to leave Berlin and to participate as a leading member in a government appointed by him. For the first time in my life, I must categorically refuse to obey a command of the Führer. My wife and my children agree with this refusal. In any other case, I would feel myself... a dishonorable renegade and vile scoundrel for my entire further life, who would lose the esteem of himself along with the esteem of his people, both of which would have to form the requirement for further duty of my person in designing the future of the German Nation and the German Reich"
Later on 1 May, Vice-Admiral Hans-Erich Voss saw the Doctor for the last time: "Before the breakout [from the bunker] began, about ten generals and officers, including myself, went down individually to Dr Goebbels's shelter to say goodbye. While saying goodbye I asked Dr Goebbels to join us. But he replied: 'The captain must not leave his sinking ship. I have thought about it all and decided to stay here. I have nowhere to go because with little children I will not be able to make it'."
At 8 p.m. on the evening of 1 May, Goebbels arranged for an SS doctor, Helmut Kunz, to kill his six children by injecting them with morphine and then, when they were unconscious, crushing an ampoule of cyanide in each of their mouths. According to Kunz's testimony, he gave the children morphine injections but it was Magda Goebbels and Stumpfegger, Hitler's personal doctor, who then administered the cyanide. Shortly afterwards, Dr Goebbels and his wife went up to the garden of the Chancellery, where they killed themselves. After the war, Rear-Admiral Michael Musmanno, a U.S. naval officer and judge, published an account apparently based on eye-witness testimony: "At about 8.15 p.m., Goebbels arose from the table, put on his hat, coat and gloves and, taking his wife's arm, went upstairs to the garden." They were followed by Goebbels's adjutant, SS-Hauptsturmführer Günther Schwägermann. "While Schwägermann was preparing the petrol, he heard a shot. Goebbels had shot himself and his wife took poison. Schwägermann ordered one of the soldiers to shoot Goebbels again because he was unable to do it himself."
The bodies of Dr Goebbels and his wife were then burned in a shell crater, but owing to the lack of petrol the burning was only partly effective, and their bodies were easily identifiable. A few days later, Voss was brought back to the bunker by the Soviets to identify the partly burned bodies of Joseph and Magda Goebbels and the bodies of their children. "Vice-Admiral Voss, being asked how he identified the people as Goebbels, his wife and children, explained that he recognised the burnt body of the man as former Reichsminister Goebbels by the following signs: the shape of the head, the line of the mouth, the metal brace that the Doctor had on his right leg, his gold NSDAP badge and the burnt remains of his party uniform." The remains of the Goebbels family were secretly buried, along with those of Hitler, near Rathenow in Brandenburg.
- Goebbels Speech 9 January 1928: Knowledge and Propaganda
- The Jew by Joseph Goebbels (1929)
- Goebbels Speech 18 March 1933 on German Womanhood
- Churchill’s Lie Factory (January 1941)
- Mimicry by Joseph Goebbels (July 1941)
- The Jews Are Guilty! (November 1941)
- Goebbels Speech 21 January 1945 Authors of the World's Disasters
- Churchill’s Lie Factory
- Goebbels Speech 21 January 1945 Authors of the World's Disasters
- List of Goebbels' Speeches
- Robert Edward Edmondson
- The Jews Are Guilty!
Articles on the diary
- Goebbels on the Jews, Part 1 - discusses all significant entries on Jews in the diary between 1938 and 1944
- Goebbels on the Jews, Part 2
- The Goebbels Diaries are Fake
- Mark Weber: Squishy Semi-Revisionist Shirker – Part Two
- Auschwitz Lies - Legends, Lies, and Prejudices on the Holocaust - section 3.7.2. Joseph Goebbels
- Lectures on the Holocaust - Controversial Issues Cross Examined - 4.1. Confessions of NS Leaders During the War
- The Hoax of the Twentieth Century - Chapter 6 Et Cetera: Joseph Goebbels
- Goebbels on the Jews, Part 1 http://www.inconvenienthistory.com/archive/2010/volume_2/number_1/goebbels_on_the_jews.php
- Goebbels’ Place in History http://codoh.com/library/document/2564/
- 'He got away lightly with suicide': Goebbels' secretary, 100, breaks vow of silence to reveal secrets of Hitler's propaganda minister http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2031365/Goebbels-secretary-100-breaks-silence-cold-distant-monster-Germans-hate-Jews.html
- I 'Knew Nothing' About Holocaust http://www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/joseph-goebbels-brunhilde-pomsel-secretary-holocaust/2016/08/16/id/743850/
- Thomas Dalton. Goebbels on the Jews, Part 2. Inconvenient History. http://inconvenienthistory.com/archive/2010/volume_2/number_2/goebbels_on_the_jews_2.php
- Mark Weber: Squishy Semi-Revisionist Shirker --- Part Two An aid to comprehension for viewers of Jim Rizoli's interview of Mark Weber (10 February 2016) http://codoh.com/library/document/4021
- Thomas Dalton. Goebbels on the Jews, Part 1. Inconvenient History Goebbels on the Jews, Part 1. http://inconvenienthistory.com/archive/2010/volume_2/number_1/goebbels_on_the_jews.php
- Thomas Dalton. The Great Holocaust Mystery: Reconsidering the Evidence. http://inconvenienthistory.com/archive/2014/volume_6/number_3/the_great_holocaust_mystery.php
- Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913 + 1828): Liquidate. http://machaut.uchicago.edu/?resource=Webster%27s&word=liquidate&use1913=on&use1828=on
- Merriam-Webetser: Liquidate. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/liquidate
- Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942. U of Nebraska Press, 2007, ISBN 0-8032-5979-4
- Holocaust Handbooks, Volume 15: Germar Rudolf: Lectures on the Holocaust—Controversial Issues Cross Examined 2nd, revised and corrected edition. http://holocausthandbooks.com/index.php?page_id=15
- Holocaust Handbooks, Volume 18: Germar Rudolf, Carlo Mattogno: Auschwitz Lies—Legends, Lies, and Prejudices on the Holocaust. http://holocausthandbooks.com/index.php?page_id=18