George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell
George Lincoln Rockwell ANP photo
Commander of the American Nazi Party
March, 1958 – August 25, 1967 (9 years)
|Preceded by||Position Established|
|Succeeded by||Matt Koehl|
Leader of the World Union of National Socialists
1962 – August 25, 1967 (5 years)
|Preceded by||Position Established|
|Succeeded by||Matt Koehl|
|Born|| March 9, 1918|
Bloomington, Illinois, United States
|Died|| August 25, 1967 (aged 49)|
Arlington County, Virginia, United States
|Birth name||George Lincoln Rockwell|
|Political party||American Nazi Party|
|Spouse(s)|| Judy Aultman (1943-1953) |
Thóra Hallgrímsdóttir (1953-1961)
|Occupation||US Naval officer, commercial artist, National Socialist activist|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1941–1960|
|Battles/wars|| World War II|
|Awards||*American Defense Service Medal|
George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 - August 25,1967) was a United States Navy Commander and founder of the American Nazi Party. Rockwell was a major figure in the post-war American National Socialist movement and his beliefs and writings have continued to be influential among people with a similar views, particularly in the United States. He is best known for creating the Rockwellian "Nazi" movement (on the suggestion of DeWest Hooker), where Americans dress up in imitation of Germans with 1920s German uniforms and wave German flags.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Military service and marriages
- 3 Civilian career
- 4 Political activism
- 5 Ideology and tactics
- 6 Assassination
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Political rivals
- 9 Videos
- 10 Audio
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Rockwell was born in Bloomington, Illinois, the oldest of three children which included a sister and one a brother, Robert K. Rockwell. His father, George Lovejoy "Doc" Rockwell, was of English and Scottish descent, and his mother, Claire Schade Rockwell´s was German and French. Both parents were vaudeville comedians and actors. Some of his father's aquaintances included Fred Allen, Benny Goodman, Walter Winchell, Jack Benny, and Groucho Marx. Rockwell later claimed he acquired his public speaking skills due to his upbringing. His parents were divorced when Rockwell was six, and this led to him spending his youth partly with his mother's family in Atlantic City, New Jersey, and partly with his father's family in Boothbay Harbor, Maine. Here, he developed a passion for sailing and fishing.
Rockwell attended Atlantic City High School in New Jersey for four years, where many of his school friends were Jewish. He apparently got along well with his classmates. It wasn't until later when his anti-semitism would appear. He failed to graduate in his senior year at Atlantic City High; Rockwell claims it was due to a conflict he had with a teacher over an assignment. He finally graduated from a high school the following year in Providence, Rhode Island.
Rockwell applied to Harvard but failed to get in since his school records from Atlantic City were never received at the university. He had another 'free year' and his father decided to send his son to a boarding school, Hebron Academy, near Lewiston, Maine. While at the academy, Rockwell had something of an intellectual transformation. Here, for the first time he began to read philosophy and 'socially significant' novels. He was impressed with the logic of Schopenhauer, but disturbed by such novels as Sinclair Lewis' Arrowsmith. Rockwell concluded these novels led people by emotion and not reason. At the time he did not fully understand the impact of such novels, but would later see them as left wing and communist propaganda.
He also began to re-examine the topic of religion. Previously, he had thought of himself as being highly religious, but after rereading the Bible, he declared himself to be an atheist. Later, he began to see religion not as an opiate of the masses, but as a necessary pillar of civilization. He contemplated the possibility of a "total intelligence" existing somewhere in the universe, and thought that a better description of his views was agnostic. Years later, he would promote the racist Christian Identity sect as a political tactic.
In 1938, Rockwell entered Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island and majored in philosophy. In his sociology courses at Brown, Rockwell rejected equality and the idea that man was made by his environment or that all human beings had the same potential in life. Among his fellow students, he discussed ideas and argued in endless 'bull sessions', particularly over topics such as social themes in popular novels. He began to realize he was taking the 'conservative' position in nearly every argument against his 'liberal' opponents. At Brown he learned the art of controversy and the tactics of debate.
Military service and marriages
In his sophomore year, Rockwell was convinced that it was only a matter of time until the United States would be at war with National Socialist Germany. He decided to leave Brown University to join the United States Navy. Rockwell appreciated the order and discipline of the navy, and in 1941 he attended flight schools in Massachusetts and Florida. After getting his flight wings, he was shipped to Norfolk, Virginia. While in transit on the USS Pastores, Rockwell had to put down a race riot between White southerners and Blacks who were placed in the same sleeping quarters. The solution Rockwell and the other officers used to stop the rioting was to separate the two groups. Due to a coin toss, Rockwell ended up leading the Black sailors while another officer took charge of the White southerners.
During the war, Blacks were segregated in the navy, and Rockwell was not hostile toward them. On VJ Day, marking the United States' victory over Japan, Rockwell gave a bottle of champagne to some Black sailors. Later, Rockwell's attitudes toward Blacks changed, and he saw them as inferior to Whites. Rockwell later called for a total separation of Blacks and Whites as a solution to America's race relations problems. He wanted to enact a program of repatriation of Blacks to Africa. When the United States armed forces were integrated in 1948, Rockwell predicted a drop of morale among American servicemen.
Rockwell served in the South Atlantic aboard the USS Omaha looking for enemy subs. Rockwell flew old Curtiss biplanes which were launched by aircraft catapults from the Omaha. Off the coast of Africa, Rockwell helped in the sinking of two Axis subs when he was part of a carrier killer group.
On April 24, 1943, Rockwell married Judy Aultman, whom he had met while attending Brown University. Aultman was a student at Pembroke College, which was the female half of Brown University. After his marriage, Rockwell studied at the navy's aerial photography school in Florida. Upon completing his training, he served in the Pacific. His most notable action was the coordinating of air support in the retaking of Guam.
In 1952, Rockwell was ordered to report to Norfolk, Virginia. Upon arrival, he was told that his next post would be Iceland. Since families were not permitted to be with Americans stationed in that country, his wife and children moved in with her mother in Barrington, Rhode Island. After a few months in Iceland, Rockwell returned to his family in Rhode Island. A short time later, Rockwell and his wife were divorced. After several months after his return to Iceland, Rockwell attended a diplomatic party in Reykjavík, Iceland's capital. At the party, Rockwell met Thora Hallgrimsson, who later became his wife. Rockwell told Thora about his political beliefs, and said that he would either be a "bum or a great man." They were married on October 3, 1953, in the Icelandic National Cathedral by Thora's uncle, who was the Bishop of Iceland. The couple honeymooned in Berchtesgaden, Germany, where Hitler had had his mountain retreat in the Bavarian Alps.
After the war ended, Rockwell became a commercial artist. He applied to the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York, and was accepted for the following year. Rockwell and his wife moved to Boothbay Harbor, Maine, and in spring 1946, he built a photography studio and found work painting commercial signs. Later that year, they moved to New York City, where Rockwell started his studies at Pratt.
While in New York and Brooklyn, Rockwell began to notice people of mixed racial heritage. Rockwell was repelled by people he called "human scum" and remembered one of his classmates at Pratt being a "Chinese Jewish Negro with red hair and freckles." In high school Rockwell was surrounded by racial minorities, but they appeared to be distinct racial groups. Here, he was confronted with what he feared would be the future of America.
Rockwell also was introduced to the modern art movement while studying at Pratt. He considered half of his instructors to be real artists and the other half to be "gross charlatans." For a while he played along with his instructors who were promoting the new art form. Once he created a monstrosity of a painting as an act of mockery and presented to his teacher. Rockwell received a grade of 'B' for his work. Rockwell began to see modern art as something foreign — 'Communist' would be the label he would place upon it even though he did not fully understand at the time what the word meant. Also, he saw Jews as promoters of the movement and mistakenly believed cubist Pablo Picasso was Jewish.
Rockwell nevertheless decided to pursue a career as a commercial artist. In 1948, he won the $1,000 first prize for an ad he did for the American Cancer Society. The contest was sponsored by the National Society of Illustrators in New York. Rockwell left Pratt before finishing his final year, and started an advertising agency in Maine. Rockwell's career as a commercial artist was interrupted when he was recalled to duty as a Lieutenant Commander at the start of the Korean War. He moved his wife and two children to San Diego, California, where he trained Navy and Marine pilots.
Upon returning a second time to civilian life, Rockwell saw a business opportunity in starting a new magazine that would appeal to United States servicemen's wives. In September 1955, he launched the publication U.S. Lady. After presenting the idea to generals and admirals who headed public relations departments for the various military services, Rockwell began his publication efforts in Washington, D.C. The new enterprise would also incorporate Rockwell's political causes: his opposition to both racial integration and communism. Rockwell financed the operation through stock sales and subscriptions. With a staff of 30, Rockwell could only promise to pay his employees before the successful launch of the first issue. The publication continued to have financial troubles and Rockwell would later sell his interest in the magazine. However, Rockwell still hoped to become a publisher.
For a while, Rockwell worked for William F. Buckley Jr., and promoted Buckley's magazine National Review among conservative college students. Later, Rockwell decided conservatives were "human ostriches" who would never take a stand against his enemy, the Jews. Rockwell failed to start his conservative newspaper or the right-wing unity organization he envisioned.
During his time in San Diego, Rockwell began to pay close attention to politics and became influenced by Senator Joseph McCarthy's stance against Communism. Rockwell supported General Douglas MacArthur's Republican candidacy for President of the United States. Rockwell adopted the corncob pipe, following MacArthur's example. Rockwell attended a Gerald L.K. Smith rally in Los Angeles and read Conde McGinley's Common Sense, a political newspaper that introduced him to anti-Semitism and the Jewish Question. He read Mein Kampf and the The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. Inwardly he became a National Socialist.
Rockwell believed in a Jewish Conspiracy consisting of three different political movements. One was Communism founded by Karl Marx with the intent of "organizing the biologically inferior...into a ruthless war of extermination against the elite." The other was Zionism inspired by Theodore Herzl; with the purpose of establishing a Jewish state in Palestine. The third, were Jewish Capitalists which helped to finance the two movements and undermine the financial health of the American republic.
He published an Animal Farm-type parody, The Fable of the Ducks and the Hens.  This was Rockwell's interpretation of Jewish power in twentieth century United States. In 1952, Rockwell began working with anti-semitic and anti-communist groups. That year, he attended the American Nationalist Conference, which was organized by Conde McGinley’s Christian Educational Association.
In July 1958 Rockwell formed The National Committee to Free America from Jewish Domination and picketed in front of the White House to protest President Dwight D. Eisenhower's decision to send troops to the Middle East. One day he received a large package from one of his supporters, which contained an 18-foot-long Swastika flag. He placed the flag on the wall of his home and made an altar with Adolf Hitler's photo in the center, lighted with three candles in front. According to his autobiography, Rockwell claimed to have had a religious experience and swore allegiance to his leader, saluting "Heil Hitler!" Rockwell and a few supporters obtained uniforms, armed themselves with rifles and revolvers, and began to parade about his home in Arlington, Virginia. The window to his home was left open, showing the huge Swastika flag. Drew Pearson wrote a news column about Rockwell, giving his first bit of publicity. In the presidential election of 1964, Rockwell ran as a write-in candidate, receiving 212 votes. He ran unsuccessfully for governor of Virginia in 1965 as an independent, polling 5,730 votes, or 1.02 percent of the total vote.  According to one of Rockwell's biographers, he was in demand on the lecture circuit and spoke to more than 100 college audiences.
American Nazi Party
In March 1959, Rockwell formed the World Union of Free Enterprise National Socialists, a name apparently chosen to imply opposition to state ownership of property. In December of that year, the name would be changed to the American Nazi Party, and the headquarters moved to 928 North Randolph Street in Arlington, Virginia. The formation of the party resulted in his discharge from the United States Navy and the forfeiting of his pension. Rockwell had to send his wife, Thora, and the four children to Iceland for their personal safety. The separation was supposed to have been temporary. In the months that passed, they grew distant. Rockwell went to Iceland and tried to reconcile with his family. However, he was unable to save his second marriage and they later divorced. Meanwhile, relations with his biological family would never be the same either. Both his brother and sister refused to ever speak with him. His father never forgave his son for dishonoring his name. Only his mother remained in contact.
In order to gain press attention, Rockwell held his first rally April 3, 1960, on the National Mall of Washington, D.C. The Washington Evening Star reported the National Socialists were a flop and the rally was a failure. Rockwell returned and gave a two hour speech, gaining more press attention.
On June 22, Rockwell presented his argument before a New York judge to obtain a Fourth of July rally permit at Union Square. After the hearing, Rockwell gave a press conference and answered a few questions. In response to a reporter, Rockwell said that 80 percent of the Jewish population in America were Communist sympathizers and were therefore traitors who should be gassed. The Jews in the crowd lost all composure and began to assault Rockwell in the presence of the media. He was given a protected escort out of New York City and never received the permit to hold the rally. Rockwell was later indicted for incitement to riot on a warrant which remained open for years.
Failing to get the permit to speak in New York, Rockwell planned a rally set for July 3, 1960 on the Mall in Washingtom. Rockwell and his men were confronted by a mob and a riot ensued. The police arrested Rockwell and eight party members. Rockwell demanded a trial but instead was being sent to a mental institution for thirty days of observation. In less than two weeks he was released and found capable of standing trial. He published a pamphlet on this experience titled, How to get out or stay out of the insane asylum.  Thereafter, he became more careful in his rhetoric.In summer 1966, Rockwell led a counter-demonstration to Martin Luther King's attempt to bring an end to de facto segregation in the white Chicago suburb of Cicero, Illinois. He believed King was merely a tool for Jewish Communists to integrate America. Although he admired J. Edgar Hoover's stand against communist subversion and would have approved of Hoover's tactics against King, unbeknownst to him, Rockwell was also targeted by the FBI's counter intelligence program: COINTELPRO.
Rockwell led the American Nazi Party in assisting the Ku Klux Klan and similar groups during the Civil Rights Movement, by countering the Freedom Riders and the March on Washington. But he soon came to believe the Klan was stuck in the past and ineffective for helping him wage a modern race struggle. After hearing the slogan "Black Power" during a debate in 1966 with Black Panther Stokely Carmichael, Rockwell altered the phrase and started a call for "White Power."  White Power would later become the name of the party's newspaper and the title of a book authored by Rockwell.
Rockwell's principal message was racial separation and attempted to form friendly associations with the Nation of Islam. He praised Elijah Muhammad as the "Black people's Hitler," and for doing the best job in promoting integrity and pride among his people. Rockwell also admired Malcolm X and saw him as the next true leader for Black America.
If separation was not achieved, Rockwell believed America faced long-term racial problems and predicted a great race war, where "the uniform would be skin color." Rockwell believed the conflict was approaching with whites eventually becoming America's new racial minority.
Rockwell gave four seperate interviews over a period of two years to Alex Haley, the famed author of the novel Roots and the Autobiography of Malcolm X. Haley later segmented the interviews and published them in Playboy magazine, appearing in the April 1966 issue. Rockwell praised Haley for his honest interviews but later complained that a Playboy editor by the name of Murray Fisher twisted Haley’s work into a bias article. Rockwell went on to say he never received galley proofs of the interview which were accorded the courtesy to previous interviewees who appeared in Playboy
At the time Playboy’s readership was estimated to be 3.6 million. Rockwell agreed to the interview because of the magazine's appeal to white males. For many, this was the first time Rockwell's ideas were presented to the public without censorship. Attention from the Playboy article brought Rockwell new recruits and speaking engagements on college campuses where at times he earned $2,000 a week.
The interview was dramatized in Roots: The Next Generations, with Marlon Brando portraying Rockwell and James Earl Jones portraying Haley.
The location he established as the headquarters of his American Nazi Party (2507 North Franklin Road in Arlington) is now a coffee shop called "The Java Shack."  The two-story house he established as his "Stormtrooper Barracks," which some of the locals dubbed "The House on Hatemonger Hill" (6150 Wilson Boulevard, in the Dominion Hills district of Arlington), has since been razed and the property incorporated into the Upton Hill Regional Park.
World Union of National Socialists
In August, 1962 Rockwell travelled secretly to England through Ireland. In the Cotswolds, he co-founded the World Union of National Socialists with Colin Jordan's British organization the National Socialist Movement, before being deported back to the states. In 1966 the international group published National Socialist World, edited by former physics professor William Luther Pierce.
National Socialist White People's Party
On January 1, 1967, Rockwell announced the party’s next stage of development. He officially changed the name of the American Nazi Party to the National Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP). Its new slogan would be “White Power” replacing “Sieg Heil.” The new strategy would be to capitalize on growing support in the wake of the Chicago rallies and to focus the organization’s commitment to a universal white nationalism as opposed to Nordic or Anglo-Saxon provincialism. An internal party newsletter, the “National Socialist Bulletin”, was started to convey and help direct these new efforts.
On June 9-11, the party held its national conference in Arlington aimed at reorganizing its leadership and “charting a new course of professionalism.” The ANP party publication The Stormtrooper magazine was replaced by a newspaper titled White Power.
Rockwell also was the first to shed the Nordicist ideology of what an Aryan was and replaced it with Pan Europeanism, which accepted all white ethnicities such as Italians, Greeks, and Spaniards. German National Socialism had only accepted Northern and western Europeans as Aryan.
Hatenanny Records and the Hate Bus
In the 1960s, Rockwell attempted to draw attention to his cause by starting a small record label named Hatenanny Records (the name was based on the word Hootenanny, a term given to certain folk music performance). The label released several 45 RPM singles, including recordings by a group credited as Odis Cochran and the Three Bigots, and were sold mostly through mail order. A truncated version of one of the band's recordings, Ship Those Niggers Back appears in the documentary The California Reich. When the Freedom Riders drove their campaign to desegregate bus stations in the deep South, Rockwell secured a Volkswagen van and decorated it with Swastikas and white supremacist slogans, dubbing it the Hate Bus and personally driving it to speaking engagements and party rallies. It was later repossessed after the American Nazi Party defaulted on a loan. 
Ideology and tactics
Rockwell was one of the first to challenge the claims of the Holocaust. He maintained it was all propaganda from the war that became a psychological weapon of Zionism, designed to promote white guilt and coerce the Western world into contributing billions in foreign aid to Israel. He often declared that if not for the Holocaust, the modern state of Israel would not exist and there would be no worldwide demand for eliminating racial segregation and apartheid.
When compared to other political icons of the 1960s, Rockwell was a combination of radical-reactionary and counter-revolutionary, meaning that he sought to counter the perceived leftist progressive cultural revolution in America and preserve its old way of life by going out of the mainstream to become a frontline fighter. But unlike other radical groups, Rockwell always made sure his was law abiding and often claimed they had to "break their backs" to be so.
Rockwell supported America's war in Vietnam. At times he would dive into anti-war demonstrations at home, tearing down Viet Cong flags that were being waved by protesters. If not for the politicians, he claimed, the war in Vietnam could easily have been fought and won "with the Boy Scouts."
Rockwell also skewered conservatives like Barry Goldwater and Ronald Reagan as either deceptive "kosher conservatives," or opportunistic "ex-pinkos." Rockwell predicted that it would not be long before the American masses were frustrated with both the Democratic and Republican parties, making way for his planned run and election to the presidency in 1972.
On June 28, 1967, the first attempt was made on Rockwell’s life. Returning from shopping, he drove into the party barracks’ driveway on Wilson Boulevard and found it blocked by a felled tree and brush. Rockwell assumed that it was another prank by local teens. As a young trooper cleared the obstruction, two shots were fired at Rockwell from behind one of the swastika-embossed brick driveway pillars. One of the shots ricocheted off the car right next to his head. Leaping from the car, Rockwell pursued the would-be assassin. On June 30, Rockwell petitioned the Arlington County Circuit Court for a gun permit; no action was ever taken on his request.
On August 25, 1967, Rockwell was killed by gunshots while leaving the Econowash laundromat at the Dominion Hills Shopping Center in the 6000 block of Wilson Boulevard in Arlington, Virginia. Two bullets crashed through his 1958 Chevrolet’s windshield and it slowly rolled backwards to a stop. Rockwell staggered out of the front passenger side door of the car, pointed towards the shopping center roof, and then collapsed face up on the pavement.
The gunman ran along the shopping center roof and jumped to the ground in the rear. A shop owner and customer briefly gave chase, but were unable to get a clear look at the fleeing figure. Other customers called the Arlington County police and checked Rockwell for a pulse. He had none; the one bullet that struck him had ripped through several major arteries just above his heart. The internal bleeding was so heavy that Rockwell died in two minutes.
A half hour later at a corner bus stop about one-half mile from the shooting, John Patler - a former member of Rockwell’s group - was arrested as the suspected assassin by a passing patrolman familiar with the Arlington National Socialists. Later that day, after hearing of his son’s death, Rockwell’s 78-year-old father commented laconically, “I am not surprised at all. I’ve expected it for quite some time.”
As deputy commander of the NSWPP, Matt Koehl became the new commander on Rockwell's death. At the time of his death, the NSWPP had approximately 300 active members nationwide and perhaps 3,000 financial supporters.
Rockwell had also named Matt Koehl as executor of his will and specified that Koehl should dispose of his body as he saw fit. Rockwell’s parents wanted a private burial in Maine for him, but they had no chance to win a legal fight for the body. On August 27, an NSWPP spokesman reported that Federal officials had given verbal approval to a planned military burial of Rockwell at Culpeper National Cemetery, which was his right as an honorably discharged veteran of the U.S. Armed Forces.
On August 29, several dozen NSWPP troopers and about 100 party supporters formed a procession and drove the 65 miles from Arlington to Culpeper. At the cemetery gates they were met by General Carl C. Turner and 60 MPs who had been rushed in from Vint Hill to enforce the U.S. Army’s burial protocol. They were backed by dozens of police from various jurisdictions. No mourners bearing Nazi insignia would be allowed into the cemetery. The NSWPP troopers’ refusal to remove their uniforms led to a day-long standoff. They unsuccessfully tried to force their way into the cemetery three separate times. Several arrests resulted. With daylight fading, General Turner declared that Rockwell could not be buried until the NSWPP made a new request to the Pentagon and agreed to follow protocol.
The National Socialists returned to Arlington with Rockwell’s body. Plans were made to bury Rockwell in Spotsylvania County, but they fell apart when local Jewish organizations protested. Fearing that Arlington County officials might seize the body, the NSWPP had Rockwell cremated the next morning and a memorial service was held that afternoon at party headquarters. On February 8, 1968, the NSWPP filed suit to obtain a National Socialist burial for Rockwell’s remains at any National Cemetery. On March 15, 1969, a Federal district judge upheld the Army Secretary’s ruling that Rockwell was ineligible for a burial with full military honors in a national cemetery. The final resting place of Rockwell’s remains is uncertain.
The controversy after Rockwell’s death wasn’t limited to the disposition of his remains. It soon spilled over into the trial of his accused assassin. Following psychiatric evaluation, John Patler was judged competent to stand trial. Patler pled not guilty at his preliminary hearing and on September 29, 1967, he was bound over by a grand jury on the charge of first degree homicide. His trial began on November 27 amid tight security at the Arlington County Courthouse. On December 15, Patler was found guilty and released on bond to await sentencing. On February 23, 1968, Patler was sentenced to 20 years in prison, at that time the least punishment possible for a first degree murder conviction. The Virginia Circuit Court postponed imprisonment pending his appeal.
On November 30, 1970, the Virginia Supreme Court upheld Patler’s conviction and 20-year sentence for slaying Rockwell and ordered him to begin serving his sentence. On May 16, 1972, the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously rejected Patler’s appeal based on claims of witness contamination. In August 1975, Patler was paroled from the Pulaski correctional unit after serving more than eight years of his sentence. Judge Charles S. Russell, who had presided over Patler’s murder trial, wrote a lengthy letter to the parole board supporting Patler’s release. It was the only time he ever did this in his career. The following year, however, Patler violated the terms of his parole and was returned to prison for an additional six years. On December 30, 1977 Patler petitioned the Henry County Circuit Court to change his surname back to its original form, Patsalos. After serving out the remainder of his sentence, John Patsalos returned to the New York City area.
The strip mall where Rockwell was slain is still called the Dominion Hills Shopping Centre. In the past, admirers of Rockwell have painted a swastika on the exact spot of the parking lot where he died.
Rockwell has inspired long-timed White activist leader David Duke. As a student in high school, when Duke learned of Rockwell's assassination, he reportedly said "The greatest American who ever lived has been shot down and killed." In the mid 1960s, Rockwell had a strategy to develop his political philosophy within the Christian Identity religious movement. Previously, Christian Identity had anti-Semitic and racist views, but not a Third Reich orientation. The Christian Identity group Aryan Nations started to use various National Socialist flags in its services, and its security personnel started wearing uniforms similar to those worn by Rockwell's stormtroopers. Two of Rockwell's associates, Matt Koehl and William Luther Pierce, formed their own organizations. Koehl, who was Rockwell's successor, moved the NSWPP to Wisconsin and founded New Order. Pierce founded the National Alliance.
George Lincoln Rockwell and Francis Parker Yockey were alleged to be foes, due primarily to Rockwell's offense at Yockey's anti-Americanism and sympathies with the Soviet Union and other anti-Zionist and socialistic movements such as the Castro regime in Cuba and Nasser in Egypt. Rockwell slandered “Yockeyism” as “dangerous” and “evil.”
- Speeches and interviews of George Lincoln Rockwell
- Rockwell’s speech at Michigan State University (April 4, 1967)
- Gordon Hall's interview with Rockwell September 11, 1963
- Rockwell gives interview with local radio station KPFA in Berkeley California. (Oct. 21, 1966)
- George Lincoln Rockwell quotes
- George Lincoln Rockwell timeline
- Lineage of American Nationalist organizations and individuals
- List of anti-Semitic American military officers
- Speech by Rockwell at UCLA campus May 16, 1967
- Speech by Rockwell at UCLA campus May 16, 1967
- American Fuehrer: George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party, by Frederick James Simonelli, page 113
- George Lincoln Rockwell American Fuehrer
- Segment from Roots: The Next Generations
- Coogan, Dreamer of the Day, 508–11. Madole published Yockey’s “Prague Treason Trial” and other essays, and was under the influence of Fred Weiss, a German World War I veteran living in the USA, who was closely associated with both H. K. Thompson and Yockey. (Thompson to Bolton, personal correspondence; also Coogan, ibid.)