French Counter-Revolutionary movement
The French Counter-Revolutionary movement is an important tradition in the reactionary conservative politics of Europe. It draws its principal strength from the opponents of the Revolution of 1789 and has included a broad array of people over-time, for various different reasons; the mainstream of which has traditionally been legitimist monarchists, traditional Catholics and agrarian peoples, but has also come to influenced to a degree the thinking of integral nationalists and some anarchists of the right. It supports hierarchy against "democracy", tradition against "progress", aristocratic and peasant values against cosmopolitan Judeo-Masonic ones.
Following on from the Revolution itself, counter-revolutionaries tried to resist the masonic republic with military campaigns. This included during the French Revolutionary Wars campaigns such as the War in the Vendée and the Chouannerie, both during the late 18th century. These were based mostly in less cosmopolitan regions of the country such as the Vendée and Brittany. Heroes from this campaign included Jean Chouan, Henri de la Rochejaquelein, Jacques Cathelineau, Louis d'Elbée and François de Charette, all of whom were killed.
François-René de Chateaubriand, Louis de Bonald, Joseph de Maistre were perhaps the most notable political philosophers for the movement, all of whom were opposed to liberalism. Others flirted with ideas from both such as Pierre-Simon Ballanche and Hugues Felicité Robert de Lamennais. To an extent both Augustin Barruel (author of Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism) and Édouard Drumont (a right-anarchist) who place importance to the role of conspiracy in politics are associated with the tradition. Neo-reactionaries joined the Action Française of Charles Maurras during the Third Republic, however this is typically regarded as Orléanist than legitimist.