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Ecumenism is a religious and socio-political movement, which seeks to gather all of the organisations which claim to be part of the Christian Church under one body with a united communion. The contemporary movement derives from early 20th century Evangelical Protestants who were trying to overcome rivalries they had in regards to missionary activity and direct their activities in a more united manner. However, various forms of "dialogue" between Protestants, Catholics and Orthodox aimed at unity with each other can be dated back to the aftermath of the original splits. Since the Second Vatican Council and especially with the Anti-Papacy of Karol Wojtyla, the Vatican II Church have been a leading proponent, either merging with or overshadowing the earlier agenda.
- 1 Protohistory
- 2 Contemporary movement
- 3 Influence of Freemasonry
- 4 Multimedia
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Catholic and Orthodox
Catholic and Protestant
Orthodox and Protestant
Meaningful connections between Anglicans and Orthodox can be dated to the 17th century, which culminated in the foundation of Greek College, Oxford, which briefly existed at Oxford University from 1699-1705. Between the years 1716 and 1725, a group of Anglicans known as the non-jurors were in correspondence with the Orthodox Church about entering a union, but this eventually failed. The five Anglican bishops involved were Jeremy Collier, Nathaniel Spinckes, Henry Gandy, Archibald Campbell and James Gadderar. Non-jurors were nominally Jacobites, who did not accept the legitimacy of the Orangist coup of 1688 which usurped King James II Stuart from the throne.
Early organised activities
Before the World Council of Churches was founded in 1948, there were a number of organisations which led up to it that were particularly active before the outbreak of World War II. What is usually stated as the founding point of the contemporary movement is the World Mission Conference in Edinburgh, Scotland held in 1910, by Evangelical Protestant missionaries. However the World Council of Christian Education first held a conference in Rome, Italy in 1907 and the World Student Christian Federation was organised in 1895 at Vadstena Castle, Sweden by students from North America and Europe. This early activity was put on hold due to World War I and after the conflict, organised groups claiming the title of Christian were in any case reduced in popularity. In any case, the World Conference on Life and Work was held in Stockholm, Sweden in 1925 and World Conference on Faith and Order was held in Laussane, Switzerland in 1927.
World Council of Churches
Council for Promoting Christian Unity
The Vatican did not play a significant role in modern ecumenism, until after the Vatican II Church had taken control of the buildings belonging to the Catholic Church. Typically, under Pope Pius XII for example, the Catholic Church taught that "false ecumenism" must be avoided and real unity consists of other groups renouncing views deemed heretical and finding unity by converting to the Catholic Church. It rejected the Anglican "branch theory" that there was an invisible supra-church of all sects declaring themselves to be "Christian." The Second Vatican Council, began under Angelo Roncalli (Anti-Pope John XXIII), changed this, most significantly the document Unitatis Redintegratio. Because this was highly controversial to most Catholics and so blatantly contradicted the pre-Vatican II teaching, the Vatican tiptoed around the issue a little at first, avoiding openly joining the World Council of Churches, but it founded the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity in 1960 under Jesuit crypto-Jew, Augustin Bea.✡
Influence of Freemasonry
- Peter Alban Heers (6 July 2014). "The Missionary Origins of Modern Ecumenism: Leading up to 1920". External link in
- Encyclopedia of Protestantism (6 July 2014). "Ecumenical movement". External link in
- David Heith-Stade (6 July 2014). "The Prehistory of Eastern Orthodoxy and the Ecumenical Movement". External link in
- Orthodox Research Institute (6 July 2014). "Bishop Raphael and Orthodox/Episcopalian Relations". External link in
- Anglican History (6 July 2014). "The Non-Jurors and the Eastern Orthodox". External link in
- Harold H. Rowdon (6 July 2014). "Edinburgh 1910, Evangelicals and the Ecumenical Movement". External link in
- World Council of Churches (6 July 2014). "A Timeline of the World Council of Churches". External link in
- Constitution and rules of the World Council of Churches at World Council of Churches
- 1870-present: The Ecumenical Movement and Religious Communities at Anglican Timeline
- Edinburgh to Salvador: Twentieth Century Ecumenical Missiology by T. V. Philip
- Charting the Road of the Ecumenical Movement by Walter Kasper
- Should a Christian be involved in the ecumenical movement? at Compelling Truth
- Ecumenical History in the Diocese of Westminster by Vatican II Diocese of Westminster
- A Brief History of the InterFaith Movement by InterFaith Settlement Foundation