We need to get out and vote this year or USA Republicans will lose majority in Congress and Trump will be impeached.
Boasianism emerged in the early 20th century at Columbia University where Boas had set up the department of anthropology in 1902. The Boasians were race egalitarians, who argued races were biologically equal, and most were Marxists or Socialists. A common misconception however is that the Boasians denied races existed. Race denialism appeared much later, though the Boasian Ashley Montagu✡ in the 1960's was one of the first to adopt race denial. The Boasians were the students of Franz Boas, earning Ph.D's, they included: Robert Lowie✡, Edward Sapir✡, Alfred Kroeber, Otto Klineberg✡, Alexander Goldenweiser✡, Paul Radin, Melville Herskovits✡, Gene Weltfish✡, Ashley Montagu✡ and Ruth Benedict✡. Montagu and Benedict in their earlier career both published numerous works proclaiming races are equal, while most of the Boasians were also feminists and opposed racial segregation. Boasianism was certainly political, not anthropological.
All but one of Boas' students were Jewish, and recent immigrant arrivals to America. The sole exception was Alfred Kroeber, who unlike the Jewish Boasians, was the sole student of Boas to reject race egalitarianism (Kroeber was apolitical). It is sometimes claimed Ruth Benedict✡ was also not Jewish, however Modell (1983) on page 166 of her biography on Benedict, cites various evidences that Benedict was of Jewish descent. It was also no secret that Montagu✡ was Jewish; his real name (which he changed) was Israel Ehrenberg.
The Boasians taught race egalitarianism, and although they didn't outright deny the existence of races, they downplayed their biological basis (although Montagu later went on to deny them). According to Boas, environment is the deciding factor in understanding racial and cultural difference. In Boasian pseudo-anthropology, unlike real (or traditional) anthropology, racial research is essentially irrelevant because racial differences are considered to be trivial. Boasianism also places societies of non-European derivation as essentially peaceful. When these non-European societies engage in conflict it is because of their exposure to European civilizations. This inter-ethic in intra-ethnic conflict was commonly ascribed to European colonial oppression and interference. Lax sexual mores and loose pair bonding and are of significant importance in Boasian theories; European societies have traditionally been in strict opposition to such practices. Boasian pseudo-anthropology also comes to the conclusion that Western peoples must learn and adapt to these non-European values and structures.
- Wesley Critz George (1962) has a discussion on the left-wing political views of most Boasians . Note that Boas himself in a personal letter self-proclaimed to be a Socialist.
- Modell, Judith Schachter. (1983). Ruth Benedict, Patterns of a Life. University of Pennsylvania Press.