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Ancient Egypt

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The Great Sphinx and the pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt.
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)

Ancient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River. When it first began is not known by modern man for certain. The Great Sphinx is estimated to have been carved 1000000 BC because of water erosion on it. Ancient Egypt reached its greatest extent in the second millennium BC during the New Kingdom. It stretched from southern Syria in the north to as far south as Jebel Barkal, located at the Fourth Cataract of the Nile in modern-day Sudan.[1] The fluid geographic range of ancient Egypt also included, at different times, areas of the southern Levant, the Eastern Desert and the Red Sea coastline, the Sinai Peninsula, and the oases of the Western desert.[2]

The oldest recorded Ancient Egyptian civilization began around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh, and it developed over the next three millennia. Various practices such as male and female circumcision originated near Egypt and were recorded as being practiced in ancient Egypt.[3] Its history is divided into a series of golden ages, known as Kingdoms, that are separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods. After the end of the last golden age, known as the New Kingdom, the civilization of ancient Egypt entered a period of slow, steady decline, during which Egypt was conquered by a succession of foreign adversaries. The power of the pharaohs officially ended in 31 BC when the early Roman Empire conquered Egypt and made it a province.[4]

The civilization of ancient Egypt was based on balanced control of natural and human resources under the leadership of the pharaoh, religious leaders, and court administrators. It was notable for many innovations: controlled irrigation of the fertile Nile Valley, mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of literature and an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions in east and central Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, and finally, military ventures that defeated foreign enemies and asserted Egyptian dominance throughout the region. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of the divine pharaoh who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people by means of an elaborate system of religious beliefs.[2][5]

Out of Egypt

In May 2015, Dr. Luca Pagani, of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the University of Cambridge, UK, and his colleagues doing research for the debunked Out of Africa hypothesis. They analysed the genetic information from six modern Northeast African populations (100 Egyptians and five Ethiopian populations each represented by 25 people). They found that the out of Africa migration came not from the Ethiopia area, but the Egypt area.[6][7] Egypt generally has a more or less white population, with a bit of brown mixed in. This also confirms genetic studies of how far removed the genetics of Subsaharan African populations are from the rest of humanity.

Originally white

People doubt this a lot, but genetic tests keep finding light skin originated around the Middle East. Genetic tests have found that originally the Middle East, North Africa and Southwest Asia were light skinned.[8] It was only mass population movements by white slavers and brown invaders and the resulting miscegenation that darkened the people.

Mainstream research however claims that it was only 10,000 years ago this started, which is not enough time. A mutation for light skin found all over Europe, North Africa and West Asia likely evolved over a much longer time and likely was carried over from the neanderthals. The Middle East by the way is where most of the interbreeding between early homosapiens and neanderthals took place.[9][10]

They used to have red hair

Red hair among Egyptians has only not anthropological interest, but also great symbolic importance. In ancient Egypt, the god Seth was said to have been red-haired and redheads were claimed to have worshipped the god devoutly.[11]

In the Ramesses study by the French, the Egyptologist Desroches-Noblecourt discussed the importance of Ramesses' red-haired condition and she noted that the Ramessides (the family of Ramesses II) were devoted to Seth with several bearing the name Seti. Seti means "beloved of Seth". She concluded that the Ramessides believed themselves to be divine descendants of Seth, with their red hair as proof of their lineage. She speculated that Ramesses II may have been descended from a long line of redheads. In the end, her hypothesis proved correct. Joann Fletcher, as a consultant to the British Bioanthropology Foundation, later proved that Seti I, the father of Ramesses II, indeed did have red hair.[12] Other investigators have demonstrated that the mummy of Pharaoh Siptah, a great-grandson of Ramesses II, also had red hair.[13]

All of these features today have only become characteristic of the Celtic people but used to be more widespread.[14]

Orion constellation correlation of pyramids

The basis of this theory concerns the proposition that the relative positions of three main Ancient Egyptian pyramids on the Giza plateau are (by design) correlated with the relative positions of the three stars in the constellation of Orion which make up Orion's Belt— as these stars appeared in 10,000 BC.

Their initial claims regarding the alignment of the Giza pyramids with Orion ("…the three pyramids were a terrestrial map of the three stars of Orion's belt"—Hancock's Fingerprints of the Gods, 1995, p. 375) are later joined with speculation about the age of the Great Sphinx (Hancock and Bauval, Keeper of Genesis, published 1996, and in 1997 in the U.S. as The Message of the Sphinx). According to these works, the Great Sphinx was constructed c. 10,500 BC (Upper Paleolithic), and its lion-shape is maintained to be a definitive reference to the constellation of Leo. Furthermore, the orientation and dispositions of the Sphinx, the Giza pyramids and the Nile River relative to one another on the ground is put forward as an accurate reflection or "map" of the constellations of Leo, Orion (specifically, Orion's Belt) and the Milky Way respectively. As Hancock puts it in 1998's The Mars Mystery (co-authored with Bauval):

...we have demonstrated with a substantial body of evidence that the pattern of stars that is "frozen" on the ground at Giza in the form of the three pyramids and the Sphinx represents the disposition of the constellations of Orion and Leo as they looked at the moment of sunrise on the spring equinox during the astronomical "Age of Leo" (i.e., the epoch in which the Sun was "housed" by Leo on the spring equinox.) Like all precessional ages this was a 2,160-year period. It is generally calculated to have fallen between the Gregorian calendar dates of 10,970 and 8810 BC. (op. cit., p.189)

The allusions to dates c. 12,500 years ago are significant to Hancock since this is the era he seeks to assign to the advanced progenitor civilization, now vanished, but which he contends through most of his works had existed and whose advanced technology influenced and shaped the development of the world's (known) civilizations of antiquity. Egyptology and archaeological science maintain that available evidence indicates that the Giza pyramids were constructed during the Fourth dynasty period (3rd millennium BC[15]), while the exact date of the Great Sphinx is still unclear. Hancock does not dispute the dating evidence for the pyramids, but instead argues that they must have been planned with the knowledge of how the stars had appeared some eight thousand years before they were actually built —since the Orion correlation theory claims they are oriented that way—which, it is implied, provides further evidence for the influence of a technology and knowledge that would not have been available to the pyramids’ builders.

Original head of the sphinx

While some believe the sphinx's head originally was a lion, there are no giant lion symbols in ancient Egypt, but there are a lot of Jackal-Dogs as Anubis symbols. Some have theorized that the sphinx originally was the Anubis Jackal-Dog.[16]

Cats and dogs

The earliest known cat domestication was in the Mediterranean island of Cyprus 9500 years ago.[17][18] There is also evidence a village in ancient China had domestic cats 5300 years ago.[19] Ancient Egypt also kept domestic cats, but dogs were also significant. Archeologists have found over eight million mummified dogs near catacombs of Anubis.[20]


Related articles


  1. page v-vi of the Preface to Thutmose III: A New Biography, University of Michigan Press, 2006
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shaw, Ian, ed. (2003). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280293-3. 
  3. Aidan & Dyan (2004) p.46
  4. Clayton, Peter A. (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05074-0. 
  5. Dr. Peter Der Manuelian, ed. (1998). Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs. Bonner Straße, Cologne Germany: Könemann Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. ISBN 3-89508-913-3. 
  6. http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ani/modern-humans-migrated-out-of-africa-from-egypt-unlike-previously-believed-115052900268_1.html
  7. http://www.natureworldreport.com/2015/05/our-ancestors-left-out-of-egypt-not-ethiopia-study-finds/
  8. Irish fair skin can be traced to India and the Middle East
  9. http://news.sciencemag.org/archaeology/2015/01/humans-and-neandertals-likely-interbred-middle-east
  10. http://www.techtimes.com/articles/29413/20150128/humans-and-neanderthals-interbred-in-middle-east-evidence-from-ancient-skull.htm
  11. G. A. Wainwright, The Sky-Religion in Egypt: Its Antiquity and Effects, Cambridge University Press, 1938, pgs 31, 33, 53
  12. L. Parks, "Ancient Egyptians Wore Wigs," Egypt Revealed, May 29, 2000
  13. In Faces of the Pharaohs: Royal Mummies and Coffins from Ancient Thebes, Robert Partridge briefly describes mummies and coffins of the 17th to 21st Dynasties, The Rubicon Press, London, 1994.
  14. http://www.egyptorigins.org/ginger.htm
  15. (January 21, 2004) (2006) The Seven Wonders. The Great Pyramid of Giza.
  16. Robert K. G. Temple, The Sphinx Mystery: The Forgotten Origins of The Sanctuary of Anubis (Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions, 2009). ISBN 978-1-59477-271-9
  17. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/04/0408_040408_oldestpetcat.html
  18. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/04/040409092827.htm
  19. http://science.time.com/2013/12/17/cats-have-been-crashing-on-our-couch-for-5300-years/
  20. http://www.newsquench.com/2015/06/8-million-mummified-dogs-found-in-egypt/

External Links

Part of this article consists of modified text from Wikipedia, page http:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient Egypt, and the article is therefore licensed under GFDL.